What Were The Long-term Economic Impacts On Eurasia Because Of The Mongol Expansion? | Essay Help Websites

 What were the long-term economic impacts on Eurasia because of the Mongol expansion? I need around 2-4 pages on this and I need sources about it in wording that isn’t very advanced but i do not want a final product more like research

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Unit I RCH Methods Discussion Board | university essay help: university essay help

Please make sure that it is your own work and not copy and paste. Please watch out for spelling errors and grammar errors. Please read the study guide and Use the APA 7 edition.

Book Reference: 

Prerequisites: ORI 7100: Doctoral Orientation, RCH 7301: Critical Thinking for Doctoral Learners, RCH 7302: Doctoral Writing and Inquiry Into Research
Textbook: Roberts, C., & Hyatt, L. (2019). The dissertation journey: A practical and comprehensive guide to planning, writing, and defending your dissertation (3rd ed.). Corwin. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781506373331

Part I: Introduce yourself to your classmates with your name, location, current employment, and future goals.

Part II: In one sentence, provide a specific business problem on which your dissertation is likely to be based. Describe your personal worldview. Also, using the study guide information and readings for this unit, identify the paradigm that most likely applies to your study. Explain how this paradigm fits or does not fit within your personal worldview.

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Unit I Topic Selection | free essay help: free essay help

Please make sure that it s your own work and not copy and paste. Please read all the instructions. Please use the APA 7 edition. Please watch out for Spelling and grammar errors.

Book Reference: 

Prerequisites: ORI 7100: Doctoral Orientation, RCH 7301: Critical Thinking for Doctoral Learners, RCH 7302: Doctoral Writing and Inquiry Into Research
Textbook:Roberts, C., & Hyatt, L. (2019). The dissertation journey: A practical and comprehensive guide to planning, writing, and defending your dissertation (3rd ed.). Corwin. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781506373331

 In this assignment, you will examine the components of a concept paper/prospectus and identify three business problems that you may consider for your doctoral research study/dissertation. Address the questions below for each of the three business problems.

How does the business problem relate to real-world issues within a business?
How could research study results potentially solve the business problem identified?
What is the potential method and design for this business problem?

Conclude your assignment with a paragraph that examines the components of a concept paper/prospectus by categorizing your responses to the three prompts above to the component you think would best fit.This assignment should be at least one page in length. Reference at least your eTextbook and one other resource from the CSU Online Library. Adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment.

Resources

The following resource(s) may help you with this assignment.

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Module Six Assignment: International Team Expectations Assignment – descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

Overview

Managing an international team will present unexpected challenges. You are in different time zones; you have different schedules; you come from different cultures; and your own communication style may be different from that of members of your team. Success of a geographically distributed team can be fostered by setting expectations that are informed by best practices and the cultures of your team members.

Scenario

Your company is expanding into a new market and has formed a new team that it would like you to manage. Your manager has sent you this note:

Thank you for taking on this challenge. You have a great team, but they come from very diverse backgrounds. It’ll be up to you to make sure it is a cohesive team that communicates well and collaborates effectively. As you know, at our firm, we feel the management of our teams and human resource management are a strategic advantage for us. I would like you to write an email explaining to me what managerial approaches you will use and how you think your team will function together. Please also include your conference call invitation for your team’s introduction. I would like to review what you are going to send to your team.

Prompt

For this assignment, you will write an email and introductory conference call invitation as requested by your manager.

Team Member Locations

Your team consists of the following four members from various locations across the globe:

Kaspar was born in and is based in the country you choose for your course project.
Kelly was born in and is based in the United States.
Syed was born in and is based in the United Arab Emirates.
Nina was born in and is based in Chile.

Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

Write an email to your manager explaining how you plan to manage your team. It should include the following information:

Cultural considerations for each team member (For the purposes of this assignment, you can assume that each team member represents the average cultural dimensions of an average citizen of the country, and you are encouraged to use the Hofstede Insights: Compare Countries website.)
Common issues among diverse or global teams and potential conflicts that could occur in your team
Multiple management approaches you plan to use and why
A policy for selecting which holidays team members can take off that takes into account cultural considerations
A determination of whether your team will collaboratively create a team expectations and communication plan or whether you as the manager will do it on your own, explaining your decision

Create a conference call invitation, including the time of the meeting and agenda, using this Conference Call Invitation Template.

Guidelines for Submission

Submit your email as a 200- to 350-word Microsoft Word document. Submit your conference call invitation by completing the Conference Call Invitation Template. Sources should be cited according to APA style.

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week 2 discussion – history essay help: history essay help

How do you control variation to improve outcomes? How might health care administration leaders implement approaches to control for variation for their health services organization?

Within a health services organization different processes and workflows contribute to the overall aim of delivering health services. Not surprisingly, when resources become constrained—for example, with influxes of new patients or even changes in health care policy and law—these changes may result in differences, that is, variation in how these workflows and processes are executed for health care delivery. As a current or future health care administration leader, you may encounter the need to control for variation to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of health care delivery for your health services organization.

For this Discussion, review the resources for this week and reflect on the approaches health care administration leaders may use to control for variation. Then, select a health process or outcome that might benefit from variance reduction and consider how you might measure the effectiveness of variation reduction for this health process or outcome. Reflect on the McWilliams, Chernew, Landon, & Schwartz (2015) article in this week’s resources and consider how accountable care organizations (ACOs) may compare in relation to non-ACOs.

By Day 3

Post, a description of the health process or outcome you selected and explain why. 

Then, explain variance reduction measures that might be appropriate for improving performance for this health process or outcome.

 Explain how you would measure the process or outcome to ensure that variance reduction measures worked

. Then, explain how well accountable care organizations (ACOs) performed in comparison to non-ACOs as suggested by the McWilliams, Chernew, Landon, & Schwartz (2015) article.

 Explain whether you believe that ACOs will be effective in controlling cost, quality, and access variation.

 Then, explain whether you, as a health care administration leader, would encourage a health organization to move toward the ACO model. Why or why not?

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HUM 200 Project Part One: Exploration Document – history essay help: history essay help

ARTIFACTS: ROMEO AND JULIET & WEST SIDE STORY

COMMON THEME: LOVE AND DEATH

Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: 

I. Describe the cultural artifacts that you chose. Consider questions such as these in your response: What is the name or title of the artifact? Who is the author or artist? What is the date or time period when the artifact was created? What is the cultural location or physical setting of the artifact? In addition, you could consider including a photograph or image of each cultural artifact, if they are visual artifacts.  

 II. Identify at least one common theme that will serve as the framework of your exploration document. How is the theme expressed in your artifacts?  

 III. Explain how the theme you identified is related to your personal experience. For instance, you could discuss how the expression of the theme in your cultural artifacts is connected to you personally.  

 IV. Discuss a profession that could be impacted by the theme you identified. In other words, how is the theme you identified related to professional experiences? How could a working knowledge of the humanities be useful in this field?  

 V. Describe at least three humanities resources that you could use to investigate your theme and artifacts. Your sources must be relevant to your theme and of an appropriate academic nature. In your description, consider questions such as the following: What are the similarities and differences in the content of your sources? What makes them appropriate and relevant for investigating your issue? What was your thought process when you were searching for sources? How did you make choices? Did you encounter any obstacles and, if so, how did you overcome them? If you did not, why do you think it was so easy to find what you needed?  

 VI. Use the humanities resources that you selected to research your theme and cultural artifacts, making sure that you cite your sources. Based on your research, do the following: 

A. Discuss the relationship between each cultural artifact and its historical context. In other words, what were the circumstances under which each artifact was created? 

B. Explain the similarities and differences that you observe in the cultural artifacts you selected, in relation to the theme. For instance, do the artifacts contain any symbolism? If so, how are the symbols both similar and different? What do the symbols tell you about each artifact? 

C. Discuss the medium—such as literature, music, or sculpture—through which your cultural artifacts were created. For instance, how did the creator or creators of each artifact use the medium to convey something about the meaning of the artifact?  

 VII. Based on your research, develop a thesis statement that conveys the claim you plan to make about your theme and artifacts. Your thesis statement should be clear, specific, and arguable.  

 VIII. Based on your research, identify an audience that would be interested in your theme and thesis statement. For example, who would benefit most from hearing your message?  

 IX. Describe how and why you can tailor your message to your audience, providing specific examples based on your research. For example, will your audience understand the terminology and principles used by humanities scholars, or will you need to explain these? How will you communicate effectively with your audience?  

 X. Provide a reference list that includes all of the humanities resources you used to research your artifacts, theme, and thesis statement. Ensure that your list is formatted according to current APA guidelines (or another format with instructor permission).  

 Guidelines for Submission: You will upload the polished version of the Word document you downloaded from Soomo to the submission link for instructor grading and feedback. Please see the feedback provided by your instructor in your SNHU course. Your exploration document should adhere to the following formatting requirements: 3 to 5 pages in length, double-spaced, using 12-point Times New Roman font and one-inch margins. You should use current APA style guidelines (or another format approved by your instructor) for your citations and reference list.  

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APA , Nursing – writing essay help: writing essay help

Note: Please respond to this discussion in at least 250 words and 2 references.

         Thank you.

The video “Chasing Zero: Winning the War on Healthcare Harm, highlighted the fact that as nurses and health care workers we are human and make human errors. (Chasing Zero, Because of our line of work, these errors if serious, may be fatal. As recently as a few years ago, nurses and health care workers may have been afraid to report errors due to the fear of being fired or disciplined harshly. Healthcare supported this punitive system. Then the viewpoint changed to a non – punitive system where reporting errors were encouraged and supported and opportunities to learn were given. The healthcare community started to see that there were many things contributing to errors, not just the person committing the error. It is important to continually bring near misses and errors to light in order to analyze how we can develop systems to prevent these errors.  Recently it was brought to light that a nurse from Tennessee who committed a medication error was found guilty of reckless homicide and would possibly serve a prison sentence. Fortunately, the nurse was given three years parole, but lost her nursing license. In this case, the negative thing she did was override a safeguard on a medication cabinet, and ignored four pop ups about the medication she was about to administer (verconium instead of versed). These pop up reminders were in red and said “Warning Paralytic Agent”. (Kelman, 2019). This nurse obviously could not defend these actions.   Nursing organizations and nurses across the country are afraid that because of possible convictions of nurses for errors going forward, they will fail to report errors. This would be devastating for patient safety and quality. We positively affect quality and safety in the care of patients by following policies and procedures to the letter. We need to question anything that we sense is wrong. When a patient questions something we need to listen and investigate.  Performing nursing research is also positive for patient quality and safety because it gives us evidence based practice which is the best possible care for the patient. Nurses and health care workers negatively affect the quality and safety of patient care by bypassing or overriding systems put into place to prevent errors and by not listening to their patients.  Anytime we fail to follow a policy or checklist exactly as written there is a possibility that an error will be committed. Two examples I have seen are a catheter related urinary tract infection which may have occurred due to poor sterile technique on insertion or opening up of the closed system. Another example is a catheter – related blood stream infection possibly caused by poor aseptic technique, not using the appropriate skin prep or failure to do dressing changes as per policy. Again, the actions to take to prevent these infections is to follow the policy and procedure and checklists for insertion and maintenance of the catheters.       

Kelman, B. (2019). The RaDonda Vaught case is confusing. This timeline will help. The Tennessean.https://www.tennessean.com/story/news/health/2019/03/27/radonda-vaught-vanderbilt-nurse-homicide-trial-vercuronium-versed/3216250

Mitchell, G. (2022). RaDonda Vaught: Former nurse in court over drug error avoids prison. Nursing Times.https://www.nursingtimes.net/news/hospital/radonda-vaught-former-nurse-in-court-over-drug-eror-avoids-prison-16=05-2-22/

QSEN.Org. (2010). Chasing Zero: Winning the war on healthcare harm. Care Fusion, AORN.TMIT.

qsen.org/publications/videos/chasing-zero-winning-the-war-on-healthcare-harm/

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Module Six Assignment: International Team Expectations Assignment | cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Module Six Assignment: International Team Expectations Assignment

Overview

Managing an international team will present unexpected challenges. You are in different time zones; you have different schedules; you come from different cultures; and your own communication style may be different from that of members of your team. Success of a geographically distributed team can be fostered by setting expectations that are informed by best practices and the cultures of your team members.

Scenario

Your company is expanding into a new market and has formed a new team that it would like you to manage. Your manager has sent you this note:

Thank you for taking on this challenge. You have a great team, but they come from very diverse backgrounds. Itll be up to you to make sure it is a cohesive team that communicates well and collaborates effectively. As you know, at our firm, we feel the management of our teams and human resource management are a strategic advantage for us. I would like you to write an email explaining to me what managerial approaches you will use and how you think your team will function together. Please also include your conference call invitation for your teams introduction. I would like to review what you are going to send to your team.

Prompt

For this assignment, you will write an email and introductory conference call invitation as requested by your manager.

Team Member Locations

Your team consists of the following four members from various locations across the globe:

Kaspar was born in and is based in the country you choose for your course project.
Kelly was born in and is based in the United States.
Syed was born in and is based in the United Arab Emirates.
Nina was born in and is based in Chile.

Specifically, you must address the following rubric criteria:

Write an email to your manager explaining how you plan to manage your team. It should include the following information:

Cultural considerations for each team member (For the purposes of this assignment, you can assume that each team member represents the average cultural dimensions of an average citizen of the country, and you are encouraged to use the website.)
Common issues among diverse or global teams and potential conflicts that could occur in your team
Multiple management approaches you plan to use and why
A policy for selecting which holidays team members can take off that takes into account cultural considerations
A determination of whether your team will collaboratively create a team expectations and communication plan or whether you as the manager will do it on your own, explaining your decision

Create a conference call invitation, including the time of the meeting and agenda, using this .

Guidelines for Submission

Submit your email as a 200- to 350-word Microsoft Word document. Submit your conference call invitation by completing the . Sources should be cited according to APA style.

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HUM 200 Project Part One: Exploration Document | mba essay help: mba essay help

ARTIFACTS: ROMEO AND JULIET & WEST SIDE STORY

COMMON THEME: LOVE AND DEATH

Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed: 

I. Describe the cultural artifacts that you chose. Consider questions such as these in your response: What is the name or title of the artifact? Who is the author or artist? What is the date or time period when the artifact was created? What is the cultural location or physical setting of the artifact? In addition, you could consider including a photograph or image of each cultural artifact, if they are visual artifacts.  

 II. Identify at least one common theme that will serve as the framework of your exploration document. How is the theme expressed in your artifacts?  

 III. Explain how the theme you identified is related to your personal experience. For instance, you could discuss how the expression of the theme in your cultural artifacts is connected to you personally.  

 IV. Discuss a profession that could be impacted by the theme you identified. In other words, how is the theme you identified related to professional experiences? How could a working knowledge of the humanities be useful in this field?  

 V. Describe at least three humanities resources that you could use to investigate your theme and artifacts. Your sources must be relevant to your theme and of an appropriate academic nature. In your description, consider questions such as the following: What are the similarities and differences in the content of your sources? What makes them appropriate and relevant for investigating your issue? What was your thought process when you were searching for sources? How did you make choices? Did you encounter any obstacles and, if so, how did you overcome them? If you did not, why do you think it was so easy to find what you needed?  

 VI. Use the humanities resources that you selected to research your theme and cultural artifacts, making sure that you cite your sources. Based on your research, do the following: 

A. Discuss the relationship between each cultural artifact and its historical context. In other words, what were the circumstances under which each artifact was created? 

B. Explain the similarities and differences that you observe in the cultural artifacts you selected, in relation to the theme. For instance, do the artifacts contain any symbolism? If so, how are the symbols both similar and different? What do the symbols tell you about each artifact? 

C. Discuss the mediumsuch as literature, music, or sculpturethrough which your cultural artifacts were created. For instance, how did the creator or creators of each artifact use the medium to convey something about the meaning of the artifact?  

 VII. Based on your research, develop a thesis statement that conveys the claim you plan to make about your theme and artifacts. Your thesis statement should be clear, specific, and arguable.  

 VIII. Based on your research, identify an audience that would be interested in your theme and thesis statement. For example, who would benefit most from hearing your message?  

 IX. Describe how and why you can tailor your message to your audience, providing specific examples based on your research. For example, will your audience understand the terminology and principles used by humanities scholars, or will you need to explain these? How will you communicate effectively with your audience?  

 X. Provide a reference list that includes all of the humanities resources you used to research your artifacts, theme, and thesis statement. Ensure that your list is formatted according to current APA guidelines (or another format with instructor permission).  

 Guidelines for Submission: You will upload the polished version of the Word document you downloaded from Soomo to the submission link for instructor grading and feedback. Please see the feedback provided by your instructor in your SNHU course. Your exploration document should adhere to the following formatting requirements: 3 to 5 pages in length, double-spaced, using 12-point Times New Roman font and one-inch margins. You should use current APA style guidelines (or another format approved by your instructor) for your citations and reference list.  

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Week 4 (MOHA-570 | admission essay help: admission essay help

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One of the reasons leaders study statistics is so they are better equipped to demonstrate ability to critically analyze research, methods used and results presented by researchers.  Read the article by Bono et al. (2007).  Critique their study in terms of methodology used, relevance of data and  information, whether the results addressed the hypotheses, etc.

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Quality Improvement for Patient Safety/ APA Nursing – common app essay help: common app essay help

This assessment is designed to highlight the role you play in high quality, safe patient care on a daily basis.

The Scenario

In an effort to continuously improve quality and safety, your manager has asked you to share one example of patient care from your experience. My submissions will be used to help facilitate an upcoming training. I am currently working in the hospital ICU.

Grading Rubric

Case summary 10% of the grade. (Fully summarize the patient case and the situation.)

Student/Nurse role 15% of the grade. (Fully describe the students’ (or the nurse’s) role in the patient care situation.)

Patient role 15% of the grade. (Fully explain the role the patient played in their own quality- or safety-related situation.

Patient care and the outcome 15% of the grade. (Fully evaluate the relationship between the patient’s care and the outcome.)

The care environment 15% of the grade. (Fully identify how the care environment affected the situation, including the nurse or provider, the patient, and the outcome.

Quality model 15% of the grade. ( Fully determine whether a quality model was used. If yes, the case study accurately identify and thoroughly explain it. If not, the case study accurately identify one that could have improved the situation.

Outcome Improvement/ Prevention of adverse outcome 10% of the grade.  (Fully explain the actions that might be taken to improve the outcome or prevent an adverse outcome in the future.

Communication 5% – Concise with exceptional attention to detail and free of errors.

Note : APA format and at least 3-4 references.

         Thank you.

In a 700- to 875-word case study, address the following:

Identify a patient care case from your own practice experience that involves quality and safety. Note: If you are not practicing or have not practiced, use a case that has received media attention or one from the textbook.
Summarize the situation.
Describe your (or the nurse’s) role in the patient care situation.
Explain the role the patient played in their own quality- or safety-related situation.
Evaluate the relationship between the patient’s care and the outcome.
Identify how the care environment affected the situation, including the nurse or provider, the patient, and the outcome.
Determine whether a quality model was employed. If yes, identify and explain it. If not, identify one that could have improved the situation.
Explain what actions you might take to improve the outcome or prevent an adverse outcome in the future.

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MKT 222 Milestone Three – cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Overview:Retail establishments must have a firm understanding of their industries, their marketplaces, and the forces that impact their success or failure. Additionally, they must establish solid retail strategies for current conditions and for future growth and stability. The final project for this course will enable you to examine these factors through a detailed analysis of a retailer of your choice.

Preparation:Before you begin preparations for this milestone, consider reviewing the Final Project Guidelines and Rubric, which provides an overview of the instructions, expectations, and grading criteria for the project as a whole. This document is available for review in the Assignment Guidelines and Rubrics section of the course. Please utilize your textbook, course resources, the Shapiro Library Summon database, and reputable sites on the internet as sources of information.

Prompt:The third phase of the retail analysis process is the competitive analysis phase. As you have learned in this course, competitive analysis is a strategic management method for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of current and potential competitors as a proactive means to reduce threats and to identify opportunities.

Using any of the resources available to you, including information gained from your research in Milestones One and Two, discuss the strategies of a key competitor to your retailer and compare those strategies to those of your retailer.Note that your retailer’s competitor may not necessarily be the market leader in the industry.Discuss important differences and similarities in strategy. What does the competitor’s future look like?

Requirements of Submission:Your submission should be two to three pages in lengthand should use double spacing, 12-point Times New Romanfont, and one- inch margins. The paper should conform to APA style. Use proper in-text citations, and list your references at the end of the paper. College-level writing is expected. Submissions should be free of grammatical and spelling errors.

Attached are Milestone One and Two to help guide in completing Milestone Three

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For this Discussion, you will explore your professional interests and those interests are addressed in specific guidelines and competencies. You also examine the different nurse practitioner roles rel – a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

For this Discussion, you will explore your professional interests and those interests are addressed in specific guidelines and competencies. You also examine the different nurse practitioner roles related to women’s health and how these roles might impact the way you work.

To prepare:

Review the modular structure of this course and reflect on how each module defines the specific skills needed as an advanced Nurse Practitioner (NP).
Review the ANA guidelines, NP competencies, and the Ethic resources found in this week’s Learning Resources and consider how they impact the work of the NP.

By Day 3

Post a brief explanation about the differences in roles related to a CRNP, a CNM, and a PA and how each of these roles might impact the how you practice as a NP. Be specific and provide examples.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses. 

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues’ posts on two different days and provide additional insight to your colleagues related to issues and topics they may want to also consider. Use the Learning Resources and/or the best available evidence from current literature to support your explanation.

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Assessment 2 | a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

I attached the previous year student work, I need help in similar assignment. Make it similar like that but write differently, so no one can check it is similar. 

The attached file presents data for a real-world construction project. Plot the data and perform a cost estimate. Analyze the results. See Lecture 2 for the mechanics of how to present the data, i.e., this is a paper assignment and should, therefore be in APA formatTitle page, abstract, paper, and Appendices. Appendix 1 should contain any references. Hints: Plot the data and use the significant plots to demonstrate your case. (You have to decide what is significant.) Clearly present the status of the project. You are the PM and are making the case, which should be clearly based on the data. 

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Two pages | college admission essay help: college admission essay help

SELF-ASSESSMENT 7.1 The Argumentativeness Scale SELF-ASSESSMENT 7.2 incidents in Negotiation Questionnaire SELF-ASSESSMENT 8.1 Transformational Leadership Scale SELF-ASSESSMENT 8.2 Servant Leadership Questionnaire Chapter 7 looks at how to choose ethical influence tactics. Chapter 8 introduces specifically developed to guide the ethical behavior of leaders.

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Data Triangulation | university essay help: university essay help

Data Source Triangulation

Five Six pages on triangulation of data for a qualitative case study with information and sources within the last 5 years; no older than 2019- The data sources will consist of one-to-one interviews, observations, focus groups, and archival data review ( no student records/data). The information must include a brief description of the triangulation of data to include the definition, purpose, types of 

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Quality Improvement for Patient Safety/ APA Nursing | essay help service: essay help service

This assessment is designed to highlight the role you play in high quality, safe patient care on a daily basis.

The Scenario

In an effort to continuously improve quality and safety, your manager has asked you to share one example of patient care from your experience. My submissions will be used to help facilitate an upcoming training. I am currently working in the hospital ICU.

Grading Rubric

Case summary 10% of the grade. (Fully summarize the patient case and the situation.)

Student/Nurse role 15% of the grade. (Fully describe the students’ (or the nurse’s) role in the patient care situation.)

Patient role 15% of the grade. (Fully explain the role the patient played in their own quality- or safety-related situation.

Patient care and the outcome 15% of the grade. (Fully evaluate the relationship between the patient’s care and the outcome.)

The care environment 15% of the grade. (Fully identify how the care environment affected the situation, including the nurse or provider, the patient, and the outcome.

Quality model 15% of the grade. ( Fully determine whether a quality model was used. If yes, the case study accurately identify and thoroughly explain it. If not, the case study accurately identify one that could have improved the situation.

Outcome Improvement/ Prevention of adverse outcome 10% of the grade.  (Fully explain the actions that might be taken to improve the outcome or prevent an adverse outcome in the future.

Communication 5% – Concise with exceptional attention to detail and free of errors.

Note : APA format and at least 3-4 references.

         Thank you.

In a 700- to 875-word case study, address the following:

Identify a patient care case from your own practice experience that involves quality and safety. Note:If you are not practicing or have not practiced, use a case that has received media attention or one from the textbook.
Summarize the situation.
Describe your (or the nurse’s) role in the patient care situation.
Explain the role the patient played in their own quality- or safety-related situation.
Evaluate the relationship between the patient’s care and the outcome.
Identify how the care environment affected the situation, including the nurse or provider, the patient, and the outcome.
Determine whether a quality model was employed. If yes, identify and explain it. If not, identify one that could have improved the situation.
Explain what actions you might take to improve the outcome or prevent an adverse outcome in the future.

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For this assignment, you will select a drug from the list below and create a PowerPoint Presentation.? Metformin Losartan Amoxicillin Lisino | WriteDen buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

03 Jun For this assignment, you will select a drug from the list below and create a PowerPoint Presentation.? Metformin Losartan Amoxicillin Lisino

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For this assignment, you will select a drug from the list below and create a PowerPoint Presentation. 

Metformin
Losartan
Amoxicillin
Lisinopril
Albuterol
Namenda
Atrovent
Nitrofurantoin
Synthroid
Desmopressin
Miconazole
Methotrexate
Ibandronate
Buspar
Gabapentin
Sumatriptan
Propranolol

The purpose of the presentation is for you to educate your colleagues on the drug you have selected. The presentation must include information about the:

Drug pharmacology, pharmacokinetics
Brand name
Generic name
Dosing
Indications for use
Side effects
Contraindications
Pregnancy class
You must also perform a cost analysis of the drug.
Provide a patient case study on a patient in which you would utilize the drug you have selected and include at least two peer-reviewed evidence-based studies related to the drug.
Describe the appropriate patient education.
What is your role as a Nurse Practitioner for prescribing this medication to this patient on your case study presentation?
Describe the monitoring and follow-up.

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Contains unread posts Review the Learning Resources for the week before responding to the Week 3 discussion prompt. Then, post your original posting | WriteDen research essay help: research essay help

03 Jun Contains unread posts Review the Learning Resources for the week before responding to the Week 3 discussion prompt. Then, post your original posting

 

Contains unread posts

Review the Learning Resources for the week before responding to the Week 3 discussion prompt. Then, post your original posting and thoughtfully respond to at least 3 classmates.

Support your responses with research from the Learning Resources. Use APA in-text citations  and cite any outside sources. Create an APA reference list at the end of the document.

Please reply to this post with your response to the following questions in regard to broadcast media. Be sure to reference material from your textbook to validate your points as you answer these questions:

A) Is there any value left in the big-screen movie experience?

B) Will online streaming video overtake the other media formats? Why or why not?

C) How can broadcast television change to remain competitive and can you cite any examples of programming changes that they have made to do so already? How does “free content” in television play into this?

D) After reading 21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook, Chapter 96: “Radio and Television Programming,” explain how cable TV was instrumental in leading to greater demassification (look it up if you don’t know what it means) of media content.

Please comment on at least 3 of your classmates’ postings with questions or thoughtful, respectful, thorough responses.

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In?Carroll v. United States,?the Supreme Court held that vehicles were held to a lesser standard of Fourth Amendment protection by? stating that a wa | WriteDen homework essay help: homework essay help

03 Jun In?Carroll v. United States,?the Supreme Court held that vehicles were held to a lesser standard of Fourth Amendment protection by? stating that a wa

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In Carroll v. United States, the Supreme Court held that vehicles were held to a lesser standard of Fourth Amendment protection by  stating that a warrant wasn’t required. Then, in Katz v. United States, the Court established the right to privacy as a defense against warrantless searches.  Fast forward to 45 years after the Katz decision and we have the United States v. Jones case. This case was an appeal from the District of Columbia Circuit Court of Appeals that went on to the Supreme Court, on the issue of whether a warrant is needed to attach a GPS tracking device to a vehicle. 

Please review the summaries of these three cases by selecting the name of the case above. 

Is it a reasonable progression based on the Court’s analysis to require a warrant before the government places a GPS on a vehicle? Why or why not? 

Based on the Court’s interpretation of the right to privacy under the 4th Amendment, should a warrant be required to place a GPS? Why or why not? 

Assuming that a warrant is required, what are the exceptions to this requirement that might apply when the government legally places a GPS on a vehicle?

2 references and APA formatting and 500 words minimum, long as questions are answered fully and in-depth.

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Human Services Organizations as Systems Social workers use the person-in-environment approach to understand the relationship between individuals and | WriteDen a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

03 Jun Human Services Organizations as Systems Social workers use the person-in-environment approach to understand the relationship between individuals and

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Human Services Organizations as Systems

Social workers use the person-in-environment approach to understand the relationship between individuals and their physical and social environments. This ecological perspective is a framework that is based on concepts associated with systems theory. Systems theory guides social workers when they assess how factors in the environment such as school, work, culture, and social policy impact the individual. Although social workers commonly use the systems approach to focus on the individual, they may apply this approach to human services organizations as well. Human services organizations exist within the context of the social, economic, and political environments, and any type of change in one aspect of the environment will influence the organization’s internal and external functioning.

For this Assignment, consider how administrators of human services organizations may apply systems theory in their work. Also, consider what you have discovered about the roles of leadership and management and how these contribute to an organization’s overall functioning.

Assignment (3 pages in APA format): Explain how systems theory can help administrators understand the relationships between human services organizations and their environments. Provide specific examples of ways administrators might apply systems theory to their work. Finally, explain how leadership and management roles within human services organizations contribute to their overall functioning

Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=wasw21

Administration in Social Work

ISSN: 0364-3107 (Print) 1544-4376 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wasw20

Theoretical Perspectives on the Social Environment to Guide Management and Community Practice An Organization-in-Environment Approach

Elizabeth A. Mulroy PhD

To cite this article: Elizabeth A. Mulroy PhD (2004) Theoretical Perspectives on the Social Environment to Guide Management and Community Practice, Administration in Social Work, 28:1, 77-96, DOI: 10.1300/J147v28n01_06

To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1300/J147v28n01_06

Published online: 23 Sep 2008.

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Theoretical Perspectives on the Social Environment to Guide

Management and Community Practice: An Organization-in-Environment Approach

Elizabeth A. Mulroy, PhD

ABSTRACT. This paper introduces a conceptual framework called Or- ganization-in-Environment that is intended to help social work students, particularly those preparing for careers in management and community practice, understand the complexity of the social environment in the con- text of a global economy. This model is based on two assumptions. First, organizations and communities are embedded in large, complex macro systems that helped to create institutional barriers of the past. Second, or- ganizations are civic actors with the potential to strengthen communities and change institutional inequities set in larger societal systems. Theories of social justice, the political economy, vertical and horizontal linkages, organization/environment dimensions, and interorganizational collabora- tion are presented and used to help analyze the model. Case examples of privatization, gentrification, and homelessness are used to illustrate theory for practice. Finally, implications are drawn for a future-oriented practice that emphasizes external relations and their political dimensions: strategic management, interorganizational collaboration, community building, re- gional action, and a commitment to social justice. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-HAWORTH. E-mail address: Website: © 2004 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.]

Elizabeth A. Mulroy is Associate Professor, School of Social Work, University of Maryland-Baltimore, 525 West Redwood Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (E-mail: [email protected]).

The author thanks Michael J. Austin for his very helpful comments on earlier versions of the article.

Administration in Social Work, Vol. 28(1) 2004 http://www.haworthpress.com/web/ASW

 2004 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Digital Object Identifier: 10.1300/J147v28n01_06 77

KEYWORDS. Social justice, social environment theory, organizational change, social change, community theory, collaboration

The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of the social environment and to consider some theoretical perspectives of management and community practice. The study of macro level factors begins with an examination of the social environ- ment; namely understanding how people interact–how they respond, adapt, and cope with family, friends, peers, and intimate others, and how they interact in less personal relationships within work organizations, schools, or associations in which a person assumes a role as citizen, producer, consumer, or client. It should then exam- ine social norms, social institutions, and institutional arrangements–the working agreements about the distribution of wealth, power, prestige, privilege associated with race, ethnicity, gender, age, mental status, or sexual orientation. While de- signed to create stability for society, institutional arrangements can be a source of conflict for those who experience institutional inequities (Mulroy, 1995a).

Students of management and community practice, and in fact all social work stu- dents, need to critically examine how macro level factors affect the lives of people who live in neighborhoods and communities, especially the lives of very low-income children and their families who live in neighborhood poverty. Gephart (1997) writes:

Existing research suggests the interaction of several forces in American cities over the past fifty years has led to the increased spatial concentration of poverty, the geographic spread of concentrated poverty, and the in- creased clustering of poverty with other forms of social and economic dis- advantage. These forces have altered the context of urban poverty at the community level and created the neighborhoods and communities of con- centrated poverty . . . (1994, pp. 3-4)

The concept of the social environment becomes more holistic when we in- clude the physical environment, especially in relation to land use and population distribution (Norlin & Chess, 1997). The question for management and commu- nity practice is how do we understand the social environment in this way, and how do we educate students to manage and change it?

While a discussion of the social environment usually begins with community theory and organization theory as if communities and organizations were separate topics, a broader and more integrated conceptual framework is needed for the edu- cational task at hand. Communities and organizations are located in larger, com- plex systems as part of an ecology of shifting resources and constraints. Based on a theoretical foundation that informs this reality, the next generation of practitio- ners will need to:

78 ADMINISTRATION IN SOCIAL WORK

• Identify and understand the critical strategic issues external to their organi- zations.

• Assess the inter-relatedness and cross-cutting impacts of the issues. • Analyze how the issues affect their agency’s mission, purposes, resources,

and operations. • Learn which other organizations are affected across a range of community

types such as geographic community and communities of interest. • Determine which theoretical perspectives offer guidance to inform a range

of practice innovations that will help to solve the presenting problems while holding firm to the overriding goal of social justice.

This article examines the social environment by building on social systems and ecological theories (not reviewed here) in order to focus on the political economy, vertical and horizontal linkages, organization-environment relations, and inter- organizational collaboration. These are selected for illustrative purposes to dem- onstrate how they can inform macro-level practice. The goal of helping students understand the social environment is related to the following four points:

1. The social environment and the physical environment are tightly linked and intertwined.

2. Factors and relationships external to an organization are important. 3. Public policies and societal factors are continuous forces of change not

only for organizations but also for the communities in which organizations are located.

4. A commitment to social justice is a core principle that frames management and community practice.

A MODEL OF ORGANIZATION-IN-ENVIRONMENT

Social Justice

Social justice, a core value of social work (Reamer, 2000), drives the model (see Figure 1). Social justice has historically guided reformers and social workers to re-frame the pressing social issues of the times and to engage in the complex work of finding solutions to vexing societal problems (Addams, 1910; Wald, 1915; Schorr, 1964; Schorr, 1997; Patti, 2000). Today this means confronting the rearrangement of institutional barriers that emerged in our urban areas during the past 30 years–barriers that helped to create and sustain neighborhood poverty that continue to affect the health and well-being of residents and prevent the advance- ment of many very low-income people, especially minorities.

Elizabeth A. Mulroy 79

The starting point for most discussions of social justice is the theory of justice developed by philosopher John Rawls (1972) who proposed three guiding prin- ciples: equality in basic liberties, equality of opportunity for advancement, and positive discrimination for the underprivileged in order to ensure equity. Rawls derived these principles of justice on what he believed reasonable people, with no prior knowledge or stake in the outcome, would apply to a society in which they were to live (Ife, 1996).

Ife (1996) moves the analysis of social justice from the individual to the commu- nity level. Following Ife’s thinking, social justice at the macro level is based on six

80 ADMINISTRATION IN SOCIAL WORK

Social Justice

Level 3 Societal/Policy Forces

Level 2 Locality-Based Community

IMPACTS SOLUTIONS AgencyLevel 1

Effectiveness

Efficiency Equity

Job, Housing,

Education, Services

Economic Globalization Market Economy

Mulroy, E. 2003

FIGURE 1. Organization-in-Environment: A Conceptual Framework

principles: structural disadvantage, empowerment, needs, rights, peace and non-vio- lence, and participatory democracy. He argues that unless changes are made to the basic structures of oppression, which create and perpetuate an unequal and inequita- ble society, any social justice strategy has limited value. “. . . all programmes that claim a social justice label need to be evaluated in terms of their relationship with the dominant forms of structural oppression, specifically class, gender, and race/ethnic- ity” (1996, p. 55). He believes that a specific commitment to addressing the inequal- ities of class, gender and race/ethnicity must be a core element of any social justice strategy, and the guiding principle of community practice (p. 56).

Harvey (1973), writing from an economic and urban perspective states, “The evidence suggests that the forces of urbanization are emerging strongly and moving to dominate the centre stage of world history . . . We have the opportu- nity to create space, to harness creatively the forces making for urban differenti- ation. But in order to seize these opportunities we have to confront the forces that create cities as alien environments, that push urbanization in directions alien to our individual or collective purpose. To confront these forces we first have to understand them” (pp. 313-314). That is, social workers must first understand how the forces of oppression operate across a metropolitan landscape in order to devise strategies capable of bringing about lasting change.

Levels of Influence

Figure 1 depicts a social environment in which communities and agencies are part of larger systems. The first set of arrows suggests that macro level factors Im- pact communities and the organizations in them. The second set of arrows sug- gests that organizations and communities work to find Solutions to help break down or change oppressive institutional barriers in the larger society. The circular pattern emphasizes the interconnectedness of the ideas presented (Ife, 1996).

Level 3–Societal/Policy Factors

Macro level factors include, but are not limited to the market economy, globalization, immigration, poverty, and a range of public policies. Institu- tional arrangements are formulated at Level 3. These may include, for exam- ple, international real estate investment and financial lending decisions and supportive public policies related to housing and urban development; na- tional or regional labor market needs and supportive federal policies and reg- ulations related to immigration; medical, managed care, and health facilities decisions driven by insurance companies; or shifting national political prior- ities toward privatization of public services generally and the adoption of a contracting and purchase of services culture.

Elizabeth A. Mulroy 81

Political Economy. The political economy concerns the intersection of events and decisions in a community and the wider polity that have economic implica- tions and political considerations. For example, the political economy involves powerful elite forces that own and control economic capital, use economic re- sources to promote industrial growth, and compete for control over modes of pro- duction and resources. Land, for example, is considered an economic resource to be brought to its highest and best use. The urban political economy creates the physical environment through real estate development and the highly politicized processes of land use planning and zoning with their manifestations in state and local-level land use plans, governance, and control (Feagin, 1998; Gottdiener, 1994; Lefebrvre, 1991). In The Political Economy of the Black Ghetto, Tabb (1970) asserted that racism is perpetuated by elements of oppression within an economic and political system that must be understood as a system (p. vii).

The political economy can also be applied to organizations and their environ- ments (Hasenfeld, 1983; 1992). The capacity of a human service organization to survive and to deliver services in the 21st century is based on its ability to mobi- lize power, legitimacy, and economic resources (Hasenfeld, 1992, p. 96). For nonprofit organizations this is reflected in the increased degree of dependency on resources external to their own organizations from federal and state grants and contracts, and private philanthropic grants from foundations (Gibelman, 2000; Martin, 2000). Functions of management include the acquisition of a wide range of external funding, financial control through management of multiple grants and contracts, impacts on program implementation, competition among internal programs for scarce resources, and effects on organization-wide fiscal stability (Gummer, 1990). Implications of resource dependency include the po- litical effects on nonprofit and public human service agencies when national and state budget priorities shift, and newly elected legislative bodies fail to reauthorize allocated funds for existing demonstration and other programs mid-stream in their implementation cycles (Mulroy & Lauber, 2002). The con- cept of privatization is used in the following example to illustrate the ways in which macro level factors can operate in the social environment, in this case on agencies directly. (A range of diverse macro level factors can be introduced in Level 3 for purposes of analysis.)

Example: Privatization. Privatization is the shifting of service delivery from the public sector to the private for-profit and nonprofit sectors through contracts and the purchase of services. It is a market-oriented approach in which individ- ual nonprofit human service organizations compete for public funds on an un- even playing field. It increased competition first within the nonprofit sector as large and small nonprofits vied with each other for public sector contracts in a period of overall reduced federal expenditures for domestic social services. Competition then increased outside the sector as nonprofits had to compete with

82 ADMINISTRATION IN SOCIAL WORK

private firms. Hard hit were community-based nonprofit organizations with so- cial change missions (Fabricant & Fisher, 2002).

The for-profit sector has benefited from privatization, particularly after pas- sage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996. Highly resourced, large corporations with no ties to local communities offered large state and county agencies the chance to purchase packages of diverse services that included management information systems, welfare-to-work job training programs, Medicaid billing, case management, and direct services to recipients (Frumkin & Andre-Clark, 2000).

Many smaller nonprofit human service organizations faced serious dilemmas such as being priced out of existence, scaling back services to the poorest or sickest, and proving in the short term that their interventions get results. When viewed from a social justice perspective, implications of privatization can be drawn for service equity, access, cost, continuity, and quality of care (see Gibelman & Demone, 2002).

Level 2–The Geographic Community

Institutional arrangements developed in Level 3 are absorbed and imple- mented in Level 2. The locality-based community can be a neighborhood, city, county, or other jurisdiction with boundaries and an interactional field (Warren, 1978) of subunits that serve collective needs. The locality-based definition of community for Level 2 was selected because it has a geographic boundary, be it a neighborhood, city, or county that students in field placement internships can readily identify. Other definitions of community can be woven in as needed (see Fellin, 2001).

Vertical Links as “Windows on the World.” The pioneering work of Roland Warren (1971; 1977; 1978) provides a powerful and provocative concept for an- alyzing communities in terms of their horizontal and vertical patterns. The hori- zontal pattern is understood to be an “interactional field” that viewed community as the aggregate of people and organizations occupying a geo- graphic area whose interactions represent systemic interconnections (1978). He explicitly stated that the interactional arena was of social rather than physical space. The importance of vertical ties was that they linked community units to units outside the community, or to the macro system and thus to the larger soci- ety and culture. Such ties could have a number of aspects that were economic, thought systems or ideologies, economic roles or occupations, technologies, public behavior, common values and norms, patterns of land use, social stratifi- cation, power structures, organizational linkages, and social problems (Warren, 1978, pp. 432-437).

Elizabeth A. Mulroy 83

The concept of a vertical pattern of ties is an intriguing idea to me because it introduces this question: To what extent does the strength of a community’s ver- tical ties determine the resources and support it gets from national, state, city, or county sources in an increasingly global economy? My interest in this question launched the trajectory of my own research based on the macro system ap- proach. I have attempted to systematically analyze relationships between as- pects of the macro system and community subunits (see for example, Mulroy, 2000; 1997; 1995a; 1988; Mulroy & Shay, 1997; Mulroy & Shay, 1998; Mulroy & Lauber, 2002). The reported findings suggest that a community’s physical envi- ronment is tightly linked with the social environment; patterns of land use such as urban sprawl can determine the status of a community’s health and the well-being of its residents; and in the global economy economic decisions made by multi-national firms with no national or local community affiliation or loy- alty profoundly affect both. The gentrification of a community will serve to il- lustrate these concepts.

Example: Gentrification. Staying with the theme of neighborhood and con- centrated poverty introduced at the beginning of the paper, the concept of gentri- fication is used to illustrate two main points; namely the decline of urban neighborhoods and urban sprawl.

First, the decline of many urban neighborhoods was part of a larger pattern of urbanization and sprawl that occurred over decades. Federal and state housing and urban policies, for example, are examples of vertical links that attempted to respond to urban blight in inner city neighborhoods and central business districts by targeting deteriorating commercial districts and residential neighborhoods for revitalization. Housing is a connector between the physical and social envi- ronments in all neighborhoods, including those targeted for gentrification. Housing concerns affordability, security, safety, health, neighbor and social re- lations, and confers status. The location of housing determines a household’s ac- cess to facilities, services, jobs, transportation systems, safety, and quality schools (Mulroy, 1995a; 1988). It affects the formation of social networks, and thus the ability of residents to build social and human capital (Coleman, 1988; Wilson, 1996). Federal and state housing policies require cities and counties to have land use plans, and housing is a core element.

The increasingly high cost of suburban housing made the revitalized districts attractive to many people who worked in the central business district and they were enticed to move back into the urban core. The return of upper- and mid- dle-income people to the central city was an explicit public policy and an eco- nomic development goal of gentrification. New mixed-income communities were created that stabilized entire city blocks. Gentrified neighborhoods, how- ever, tended to displace and disperse many local very-low income residents and furthered their downward mobility in search of rental housing they could afford

84 ADMINISTRATION IN SOCIAL WORK

(Mulroy, 1988). Most urban neighborhoods, however, did not receive public and private investments for gentrification.

From the political economy perspective, the processes of urbanization such as real estate and financial lending decisions made by national and multi-na- tional firms with vertical ties to a neighborhood–and bolstered by help from sup- portive federal housing and urban development policies–changed the spatial organization of communities with serious impacts on poor neighborhoods (Feagin, 1998). For example, our understanding of where people live in a city and why they live there has traditionally been guided by concentric zone theory developed in the 1920s. Simply put, ecological processes result in city growth and development that evolve outward in five zones of concentric rings: (1) the central business district, (2) transitional manufacturing zone, (3) worker housing close to low-wage manufacturing jobs, (4) higher income housing, and (5) the suburbs. (See Fellin, 2001 for a more complete discussion.) The theory of hous- ing filtration postulates that as low-wage households in worker housing save money they would seek better housing and move out to the next residential zone, freeing up their multi-family housing for the next group of low-wage workers, typically new immigrant groups. Housing “filtered” down in this pattern of sup- ply and demand. Over time, this “filtering” of the housing market was the basis for private builders to construct new housing in the suburbs. Housing has always been a private market function in America, and therefore private developers ra- tionally build where the demand for expensive housing and therefore greater profits will be highest–the suburbs. It was assumed that there would always be an adequate supply of housing stock for the poor in older inner-neighborhoods (Mulroy, 1995b).

Second, the effects of urban sprawl have restructured communities and nei- ther concentric zone theory nor housing filtration may work as theorized. When a neighborhood was gentrified “reverse” housing filtration took place. Neighborhoods had vertical ties to aspects of the macro system, particularly through political, economic, and organizational linkages (Warren, 1978). For example, as manufacturing wound down and firms relocated to cheaper points of production in the suburbs, rural “exurbs,” or to international locations with cheaper labor costs, inner-city plants were closed and often abandoned. Neigh- borhoods around them began to decline. Many insurance companies and banks not horizontally linked in the neighborhood’s interactional field habitually de- nied loans to home buyers and small entrepreneurs in many of these deteriorat- ing inner-city neighborhoods. Red lines were drawn on maps to identify communities in which investment was considered a bad risk. The Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 made this practice of redlining neighborhoods ille- gal, but it still persists, resulting in large pockets of urban decline.

Elizabeth A. Mulroy 85

Low-income residents who lived there had limited access to jobs that paid a living wage and thus no ability to save and move out to zones with better housing and living conditions. Absentee landlords, not horizontally linked in the com- munity’s interactional field, owned most multi-family housing and apartment buildings in declining inner-city neighborhoods as investments to make money. Rather than make needed repairs, they often let buildings run down and aban- doned them. Residents had no access to capital to purchase or improve the hous- ing in which they lived, or to start or improve a business. The impacts of the flow of capital out of these neighborhoods and the absence of vertical links for posi- tive community building purposes can be seen today in urban neighborhoods rife with rising poverty, failing schools, abandoned buildings, poor public ser- vices, and increased levels of crime (Richmond, 2000).

At the time these neighborhoods were in decline, highway construction pro- liferated from central business districts out to the sprawling new suburbs. Less expensive housing was built in rural areas far from central cities but near new super highways. This made it easier for commuters to get to work in the central cities but the highways cut through and divided the old working class inner-city neighborhoods in the process. Traffic congestion and air pollution increased as these new patterns of land use development were repeated across America.

The point of the gentrification example is to highlight how dynamic changes in a specific geographic community are driven by external forces that may work to decrease the strength of local horizontal ties as vertical ties to dis- tant but influential and powerful sources increase. Such vertical ties, however, may have negative or positive impacts on a target community as the gentrifica- tion example illustrates. While some vertical ties served to extract capital, oth- ers were used to infuse capital and improve neighborhood conditions.

This conceptualization helps the practitioner to monitor local community conditions in terms of the patterns of horizontal and vertical links. That analysis can then be related to: (1) the structure of the housing market relative to the availability of safe, habitable, and affordable housing, (2) location of public transit lines relative to employment for low-wage workers, (3) access to finan- cial capital (banks, credit unions), basic needs (groceries, pharmacy, clothing stores, health clinics, public schools), social capital (outreach offices for social services, family support centers), (4) physically safe and environmentally healthy places for children to play, and (5) culturally appropriate services for new immigrant groups.

Level 1–The Organization

Both macro level forces in Level 3 and the ways they are executed and imple- mented in Level 2, in turn, influence individual agencies. It is understood that many agencies are not community-oriented, but because their client groups may

86 ADMINISTRATION IN SOCIAL WORK

live in unhealthy and unsafe neighborhood environments, civic infrastructure is a matter for agency concern.

The model of Organization-in-Environment (Figure 1) makes the following three assumptions. First, the organization’s internal/external boundary is porous, so environmental surveillance and solution-finding are continuous and therefore strategic. Second, social workers need to be active community leaders at the deci- sion making table when complex coalitions are formed, issued framed and de- bated, tough political decisions made, and Solutions created (see arrows in Figure 1). Since an environment is dynamic, changes to agency structure, resource base, or functions can be anticipated not only from the organizational life cycle perspective (Hasenfeld & Schmid, 1989) but also from an ecological perspective as adapta- tions to the influences from Levels 3 and 2. Third, organizational behavior is guided by effectiveness, efficiency, and equity criteria. Effectiveness and effi- ciency are considered criteria for good internal management generally. Equity re- flects the social justice criteria and all three criteria need to be in balance as noted in Figure 1. Two theoretical perspectives are introduced next; namely, organiza- tional-environment relations and inter-organizational collaboration.

Organizational-Environment Relations. The relationship between formal or- ganizations and their external environments has interested a number of organi- zational sociologists and social work theorists for many years (Aldrich, 1979; Alter & Hague, 1993; Gummer, 1990; Hasenfeld, 1983; Lawrence & Lorsch, 1969; Schmid, 1992; 2000; Zald, 1970). Theorists once differentiated between a general environment of remote factors in the macro system and a task environ- ment of more immediate exchanges and negotiations (Hasenfeld, 1983). Schmid (2000) suggests that technological advance

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E. L. is an 88-year-old widow who has advanced dementia. She is a retired secretary and is cared for in the home of her divorced daughter, who is her | WriteDen english essay help: english essay help

03 Jun E. L. is an 88-year-old widow who has advanced dementia. She is a retired secretary and is cared for in the home of her divorced daughter, who is her

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E. L. is an 88-year-old widow who has advanced dementia. She is a retired secretary and is cared for in the home of her divorced daughter, who is her power of attorney for health affairs. E. L. requires assistance with all activities of daily living. She spends most of the day sitting in her orthopedic recliner (she has had bilateral hip replacements) or lying in bed. She does not speak or acknowledge the presence of others. Recently, E. L. has stopped eating all meals except for small banana slices. She resists a spoon when it is brought to her mouth, and she pockets food in her cheeks without swallowing. E. L. was admitted to the hospital several months ago for influenza and bilateral pneumonia. She was treated in the intensive care unit for three days and then sent home. The possibility of a feeding tube insertion was discussed during her hospitalization. E. L.’s daughter is seeking guidance on artificial nutrition and hydration.

Use the assigned readings to guide you in the development of five discussion points
Discussions points should reflect best practices that you will include as you speak with E. L.’s daughter regarding her mother’s end-of-life care.
Cite your references in proper APA Style.

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A 27-year-old patient with a history of substance abuse is found unresponsive by emergency medical services (EMS) after being called by the patients | WriteDen college essay help service: college essay help service

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 A 27-year-old patient with a history of substance abuse is found unresponsive by emergency medical services (EMS) after being called by the patient’s roommate. The roommate states that he does not know how long the patient had been lying there. Patient received naloxone in the field and has become responsive. He complains of burning pain over his left hip and forearm. Evaluation in the ED revealed a large amount of necrotic tissue over the greater trochanter as well as the forearm. EKG demonstrated prolonged PR interval and peaked T waves. Serum potassium level 6.9 mEq/L.

For this Discussion, you will examine the above case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts. 

To prepare:

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

The role genetics plays in the disease.
Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
The cells that are involved in this process.
How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

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1-Since the advent of polling, political scientists have found that Americans dont know much about the details of political issues or even the names | WriteDen college application essay help online: college application essay help online

03 Jun 1-Since the advent of polling, political scientists have found that Americans dont know much about the details of political issues or even the names

1-Since the advent of polling, political scientists have found that Americans don’t know much about the details of political issues or even the names of many leading politicians. Education is one distinguishing factor that separates the politically sophisticated from the unsophisticated, but, since education levels have increased over the last half-century, why hasn’t Americans’ knowledge of politics increased? How does democracy survive given such low levels of political knowledge among Americans over time?
2-Can democracy be sustained when so few people are involved in the political system? Voter turnout in a local election can run less than 10 percent, yet local governments are the ones that affect people more closely on a daily basis. Why do more people not vote in America? Explain.
3- The role of public opinion influences how we view and make our political decision based on media, family, education, religion, race, etc. Please comment on any of those elements and how did it influence your political decision. Steve

 
4-Can the average American trust the media, given the amount of “fake news” that is placed on social media, I often wonder if we have a fair chance to understand the candidates and the political process. I will love to hear your comments. Steve

200 words each question

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I need an Early Globalization discussion write-up of at least 250 words following the links below in 6-7 Hours; 1) Read the two YAWP readings – links | WriteDen ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

03 Jun I need an Early Globalization discussion write-up of at least 250 words following the links below in 6-7 Hours; 1) Read the two YAWP readings – links

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 I need an Early Globalization discussion write-up of at least 250 words following the links below in 6-7 Hours;

1) Read the two YAWP readings – links provided.

capturing Atahuelpa

Atahuelpa killed

Journal of Christopher Columbus, 1492

Bartolome de Las Casas Describes the …..

Columbus’s Thoughts on Natives

2) Read pages 22 – 27 of the US History online text.

3) Then review the videos provided.

4) Read the Howard Zinn chapter excerpt provided.

5) Review the Thanksgiving PowerPoint

6) Review the article link “More cities celebrating ‘Indigenous Peoples Day’ amid effort to abolish Columbus Day”

What is the common theme of the sources provided? What does the Howard Zinn chapter teach you about explorer and missionary views of Native Americans? How does the article on “Indigenous Peoples Day” relate to what you have learned? Has your perspective of Columbus and the treatment of Native Americans changed? Did globalization effect the culture of the Native people? What is the most surprising information you learned this week? 

Build the thesis (main idea) of your post by asking yourself similar questions as the examples provided above. Make sure to read and utilize all of the resources provided in order to create an informed and engaging conversation with the class. If you utilize a source, please cite it. Questions should be answered in separate paragraphs.

Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United States. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2009.

Chapter 1: COLUMBUS, THE INDIANS, AND HUMAN PROGRESS

Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island’s beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat. When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to greet them, brought them food, water, gifts. He later wrote of this in his log:

They … brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks’ bells. They willingly traded everything they owned… . They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features…. They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane… . They would make fine servants…. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.

These Arawaks of the Bahama Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were remarkable (European observers were to say again and again) for their hospitality, their belief in sharing. These traits did not stand out in the Europe of the Renaissance, dominated as it was by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus.

Columbus wrote:

As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts.

The information that Columbus wanted most was: Where is the gold? He had persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance an expedition to the lands, the wealth, he expected would be on the other side of the Atlantic-the Indies and Asia, gold and spices. For, like other informed people of his time, he knew the world was round and he could sail west in order to get to the Far East.

Spain was recently unified, one of the new modern nation-states, like France, England, and Portugal. Its population, mostly poor peasants, worked for the nobility, who were 2 percent of the population and owned 95 percent of the land. Spain had tied itself to the Catholic Church, expelled all the Jews, driven out the Moors. Like other states of the modern world, Spain sought gold, which was becoming the new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything.

There was gold in Asia, it was thought, and certainly silks and spices, for Marco Polo and others had brought back marvelous things from their overland expeditions centuries before. Now that the Turks had conquered Constantinople and the eastern Mediterranean, and controlled the land routes to Asia, a sea route was needed. Portuguese sailors were working their way around the southern tip of Africa. Spain decided to gamble on a long sail across an unknown ocean.

In return for bringing back gold and spices, they promised Columbus 10 percent of the profits, governorship over new-found lands, and the fame that would go with a new title: Admiral of the Ocean Sea. He was a merchant’s clerk from the Italian city of Genoa, part-time weaver (the son of a skilled weaver), and expert sailor. He set out with three sailing ships, the largest of which was the Santa Maria, perhaps 100 feet long, and thirty-nine crew members.

Columbus would never have made it to Asia, which was thousands of miles farther away than he had calculated, imagining a smaller world. He would have been doomed by that great expanse of sea. But he was lucky. One-fourth of the way there he came upon an unknown, uncharted land that lay between Europe and Asia-the Americas. It was early October 1492, and thirty-three days since he and his crew had left the Canary Islands, off the Atlantic coast of Africa. Now they saw branches and sticks floating in the water. They saw flocks of birds.

These were signs of land. Then, on October 12, a sailor called Rodrigo saw the early morning moon shining on white sands, and cried out. It was an island in the Bahamas, the Caribbean sea. The first man to sight land was supposed to get a yearly pension of 10,000 maravedis for life, but Rodrigo never got it. Columbus claimed he had seen a light the evening before. He got the reward.

So, approaching land, they were met by the Arawak Indians, who swam out to greet them. The Arawaks lived in village communes, had a developed agriculture of corn, yams, cassava. They could spin and weave, but they had no horses or work animals. They had no iron, but they wore tiny gold ornaments in their ears.

This was to have enormous consequences: it led Columbus to take some of them aboard ship as prisoners because he insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold. He then sailed to what is now Cuba, then to Hispaniola (the island which today consists of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). There, bits of visible gold in the rivers, and a gold mask presented to Columbus by a local Indian chief, led to wild visions of gold fields.

On Hispaniola, out of timbers from the Santa Maria, which had run aground, Columbus built a fort, the first European military base in the Western Hemisphere. He called it Navidad (Christmas) and left thirty-nine crewmembers there, with instructions to find and store the gold. He took more Indian prisoners and put them aboard his two remaining ships. At one part of the island he got into a fight with Indians who refused to trade as many bows and arrows as he and his men wanted. Two were run through with swords and bled to death. Then the Nina and the Pinta set sail for the Azores and Spain. When the weather turned cold, the Indian prisoners began to die.

Columbus’s report to the Court in Madrid was extravagant. He insisted he had reached Asia (it was Cuba) and an island off the coast of China (Hispaniola). His descriptions were part fact, part fiction:

Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful … the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold. . . . There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other metals….

The Indians, Columbus reported, “are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone….” He concluded his report by asking for a little help from their Majesties, and in return he would bring them from his next voyage “as much gold as they need … and as many slaves as they ask.” He was full of religious talk: “Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities.”

Because of Columbus’s exaggerated report and promises, his second expedition was given seventeen ships and more than twelve hundred men. The aim was clear: slaves and gold. They went from island to island in the Caribbean, taking Indians as captives. But as word spread of the Europeans’ intent they found more and more empty villages. On Haiti, they found that the sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and children as slaves for sex and labor.

Now, from his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships. Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route. The rest arrived alive in Spain and were put up for sale by the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the slaves were “naked as the day they were born,” they showed “no more embarrassment than animals.” Columbus later wrote: “Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold.”

But too many of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months. When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death.

The Indians had been given an impossible task. The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed.

Trying to put together an army of resistance, the Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, swords, horses. When the Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to death. Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison. Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians on Haiti were dead.

When it became clear that there was no gold left, the Indians were taken as slave labor on huge estates, known later as encomiendas. They were worked at a ferocious pace, and died by the thousands. By the year 1515, there were perhaps fifty thousand Indians left. By 1550, there were five hundred. A report of the year 1650 shows none of the original Arawaks or their descendants left on the island.

The chief source-and, on many matters the only source-of information about what happened on the islands after Columbus came is Bartolome de las Casas, who, as a young priest, participated in the conquest of Cuba. For a time he owned a plantation on which Indian slaves worked, but he gave that up and became a vehement critic of Spanish cruelty. Las Casas transcribed Columbus’s journal and, in his fifties, began a multivolume History of the Indies. In it, he describes the Indians. They are agile, he says, and can swim long distances, especially the women. They are not completely peaceful, because they do battle from time to time with other tribes, but their casualties seem small, and they fight when they are individually moved to do so because of some grievance, not on the orders of captains or kings.

Women in Indian society were treated so well as to startle the Spaniards. Las Casas describes sex relations:

Marriage laws are non-existent men and women alike choose their mates and leave them as they please, without offense, jealousy or anger. They multiply in great abundance; pregnant women work to the last minute and give birth almost painlessly; up the next day, they bathe in the river and are as clean and healthy as before giving birth. If they tire of their men, they give themselves abortions with herbs that force stillbirths, covering their shameful parts with leaves or cotton cloth; although on the whole, Indian men and women look upon total nakedness with as much casualness as we look upon a man’s head or at his hands.

The Indians, Las Casas says, have no religion, at least no temples. They live in

large communal bell-shaped buildings, housing up to 600 people at one time … made of very strong wood and roofed with palm leaves…. They prize bird feathers of various colors, beads made of fishbones, and green and white stones with which they adorn their ears and lips, but they put no value on gold and other precious things. They lack all manner of commerce, neither buying nor selling, and rely exclusively on their natural environment for maintenance. They are extremely generous with their possessions and by the same token covet the possessions of their friends and expect the same degree of liberality. …

In Book Two of his History of the Indies, Las Casas (who at first urged replacing Indians by black slaves, thinking they were stronger and would survive, but later relented when he saw the effects on blacks) tells about the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards. It is a unique account and deserves to be quoted at length:

Endless testimonies . .. prove the mild and pacific temperament of the natives…. But our work was to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and destroy; small wonder, then, if they tried to kill one of us now and then…. The admiral, it is true, was blind as those who came after him, and he was so anxious to please the King that he committed irreparable crimes against the Indians….

Las Casas tells how the Spaniards “grew more conceited every day” and after a while refused to walk any distance. They “rode the backs of Indians if they were in a hurry” or were carried on hammocks by Indians running in relays. “In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to shade them from the sun and others to fan them with goose wings.”

Total control led to total cruelty. The Spaniards “thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades.” Las Casas tells how “two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot; they took the parrots and for fun beheaded the boys.”

The Indians’ attempts to defend themselves failed. And when they ran off into the hills they were found and killed. So, Las Casas reports, “they suffered and died in the mines and other labors in desperate silence, knowing not a soul in the world to whom they could turn for help.” He describes their work in the mines:

… mountains are stripped from top to bottom and bottom to top a thousand times; they dig, split rocks, move stones, and carry dirt on their backs to wash it in the rivers, while those who wash gold stay in the water all the time with their backs bent so constantly it breaks them; and when water invades the mines, the most arduous task of all is to dry the mines by scooping up pansful of water and throwing it up outside….

After each six or eight months’ work in the mines, which was the time required of each crew to dig enough gold for melting, up to a third of the men died.

While the men were sent many miles away to the mines, the wives remained to work the soil, forced into the excruciating job of digging and making thousands of hills for cassava plants.

Thus husbands and wives were together only once every eight or ten months and when they met they were so exhausted and depressed on both sides … they ceased to procreate. As for the newly born, they died early because their mothers, overworked and famished, had no milk to nurse them, and for this reason, while I was in Cuba, 7000 children died in three months. Some mothers even drowned their babies from sheer desperation…. in this way, husbands died in the mines, wives died at work, and children died from lack of milk . .. and in a short time this land which was so great, so powerful and fertile … was depopulated. … My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write. …

When he arrived on Hispaniola in 1508, Las Casas says, “there were 60,000 people living on this island, including the Indians; so that from 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines. Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it….”

Thus began the history, five hundred years ago, of the European invasion of the Indian settlements in the Americas. That beginning, when you read Las Casas-even if his figures are exaggerations (were there 3 million Indians to begin with, as he says, or less than a million, as some historians have calculated, or 8 million as others now believe?)-is conquest, slavery, death. When we read the history books given to children in the United States, it all starts with heroic adventure-there is no bloodshed-and Columbus Day is a celebration.

Past the elementary and high schools, there are only occasional hints of something else. Samuel Eliot Morison, the Harvard historian, was the most distinguished writer on Columbus, the author of a multivolume biography, and was himself a sailor who retraced Columbus’s route across the Atlantic. In his popular book Christopher Columbus, Mariner, written in 1954, he tells about the enslavement and the killing: “The cruel policy initiated by Columbus and pursued by his successors resulted in complete genocide.”

That is on one page, buried halfway into the telling of a grand romance. In the book’s last paragraph, Morison sums up his view of Columbus:

He had his faults and his defects, but they were largely the defects of the qualities that made him great-his indomitable will, his superb faith in God and in his own mission as the Christ-bearer to lands beyond the seas, his stubborn persistence despite neglect, poverty and discouragement. But there was no flaw, no dark side to the most outstanding and essential of all his qualities-his seamanship.

One can lie outright about the past. Or one can omit facts which might lead to unacceptable conclusions. Morison does neither. He refuses to lie about Columbus. He does not omit the story of mass murder; indeed he describes it with the harshest word one can use: genocide.

But he does something else-he mentions the truth quickly and goes on to other things more important to him. Outright lying or quiet omission takes the risk of discovery which, when made, might arouse the reader to rebel against the writer. To state the facts, however, and then to bury them in a mass of other information is to say to the reader with a certain infectious calm: yes, mass murder took place, but it’s not that important-it should weigh very little in our final judgments; it should affect very little what we do in the world.

It is not that the historian can avoid emphasis of some facts and not of others. This is as natural to him as to the mapmaker, who, in order to produce a usable drawing for practical purposes, must first flatten and distort the shape of the earth, then choose out of the bewildering mass of geographic information those things needed for the purpose of this or that particular map.

My argument cannot be against selection, simplification, emphasis, which are inevitable for both cartographers and historians. But the map-maker’s distortion is a technical necessity for a common purpose shared by all people who need maps. The historian’s distortion is more than technical, it is ideological; it is released into a world of contending interests, where any chosen emphasis supports (whether the historian means to or not) some kind of interest, whether economic or political or racial or national or sexual.

Furthermore, this ideological interest is not openly expressed in the way a mapmaker’s technical interest is obvious (“This is a Mercator projection for long-range navigation-for short-range, you’d better use a different projection”). No, it is presented as if all readers of history had a common interest which historians serve to the best of their ability. This is not intentional deception; the historian has been trained in a society in which education and knowledge are put forward as technical problems of excellence and not as tools for contending social classes, races, nations.

To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators and discoverers, and to de-emphasize their genocide, is not a technical necessity but an ideological choice. It serves- unwittingly-to justify what was done. My point is not that we must, in telling history, accuse, judge, condemn Columbus in absentia. It is too late for that; it would be a useless scholarly exercise in morality. But the easy acceptance of atrocities as a deplorable but necessary price to pay for progress (Hiroshima and Vietnam, to save Western civilization; Kronstadt and Hungary, to save socialism; nuclear proliferation, to save us all)-that is still with us. One reason these atrocities are still with us is that we have learned to bury them in a mass of other facts, as radioactive wastes are buried in containers in the earth. We have learned to give them exactly the same proportion of attention that teachers and writers often give them in the most respectable of classrooms and textbooks. This learned sense of moral proportion, coming from the apparent objectivity of the scholar, is accepted more easily than when it comes from politicians at press conferences. It is therefore more deadly.

The treatment of heroes (Columbus) and their victims (the Arawaks)-the quiet acceptance of conquest and murder in the name of progress-is only one aspect of a certain approach to history, in which the past is told from the point of view of governments, conquerors, diplomats, leaders. It is as if they, like Columbus, deserve universal acceptance, as if they-the Founding Fathers, Jackson, Lincoln, Wilson, Roosevelt, Kennedy, the leading members of Congress, the famous Justices of the Supreme Court-represent the nation as a whole. The pretense is that there really is such a thing as “the United States,” subject to occasional conflicts and quarrels, but fundamentally a community of people with common interests. It is as if there really is a “national interest” represented in the Constitution, in territorial expansion, in the laws passed by Congress, the decisions of the courts, the development of capitalism, the culture of education and the mass media.

“History is the memory of states,” wrote Henry Kissinger in his first book, A World Restored, in which he proceeded to tell the history of nineteenth-century Europe from the viewpoint of the leaders of Austria and England, ignoring the millions who suffered from those statesmen’s policies. From his standpoint, the “peace” that Europe had before the French Revolution was “restored” by the diplomacy of a few national leaders. But for factory workers in England, farmers in France, colored people in Asia and Africa, women and children everywhere except in the upper classes, it was a world of conquest, violence, hunger, exploitation-a world not restored but disintegrated.

My viewpoint, in telling the history of the United States, is different: that we must not accept the memory of states as our own. Nations are not communities and never have been, The history of any country, presented as the history of a family, conceals fierce conflicts of interest (sometimes exploding, most often repressed) between conquerors and conquered, masters and slaves, capitalists and workers, dominators and dominated in race and sex. And in such a world of conflict, a world of victims and executioners, it is the job of thinking people, as Albert Camus suggested, not to be on the side of the executioners.

….

So, Columbus and his successors were not coming into an empty wilderness, but into a world which in some places was as densely populated as Europe itself, where the culture was complex, where human relations were more egalitarian than in Europe, and where the relations among men, women, children, and nature were more beautifully worked out than perhaps any place in the world.

They were people without a written language, but with their own laws, their poetry, their history kept in memory and passed on, in an oral vocabulary more complex than Europe’s, accompanied by song, dance, and ceremonial drama. They paid careful attention to the development of personality, intensity of will, independence and flexibility, passion and potency, to their partnership with one another and with nature.

John Collier, an American scholar who lived among Indians in the 1920s and 1930s in the American Southwest, said of their spirit: “Could we make it our own, there would be an eternally inexhaustible earth and a forever lasting peace.”

Perhaps there is some romantic mythology in that. But the evidence from European travelers in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, put together recently by an American specialist on Indian life, William Brandon, is overwhelmingly supportive of much of that “myth.” Even allowing for the imperfection of myths, it is enough to make us question, for that time and ours, the excuse of progress in the annihilation of races, and the telling of history from the standpoint of the conquerors and leaders of Western civilization.

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Political Participation

Student Name

Institution

Course/Number

Due Date

Faculty Name

Political Participation

Involvement in politics, or “political participation,” refers to the acts taken by public members to affect public policy, either directly or indirectly. Activities such as Voting, participating in a campaign, donating money to a candidate or organization, interacting with government officials, lobbying for change, and working with others on an issue all fit under this definition. In nations where powerful parties or political organizations give alternative resources, comprehensive cross-national statistics show that wealthy and more educated people engage at higher rates than those who are less fortunate. The Civic Voluntarism Model (CVM) study has shown that people apply the skills they learn in organizations to their political involvements (Weiss, 2020). The CVM and other recent studies have found that people engage more when recruited or mobilized. Using the Political Action experiment, researchers found that people had expanded their definition of “political action repertoire” to encompass more than just protest. Although the objectives of authoritarian governments and economically less developed countries differ, the core issues of their engagement remain the same.

One of the foundational tenets of government is political participation, as seen in the figure above (McKee, 2022). People can express their thoughts about the world and how it is controlled in various ways. As a result of these acts, people are also attempting to influence the decisions that affect their lives. As illustrated above, the exercise of democracy in the act of Voting is an example of political participation. Such activity has a great influence and impact on the citizens. The impacts may be realized from the works and actions partaken by the voted candidates. Under such circumstances, the actions of the voted candidates may improve or worsen the conditions of living for every citizen. This illustrates the impact of the respective activity. This implies that political participation is necessary for every citizen. Promoting at the local, regional or national level; developing thinking about disability or other social problems at the individual or family level; and participating in disabled people’s organizations or other groups and organizations are examples of these activities. Voting, affiliation with a political party, and candidacy for office are all formal politics. Participation in politics is open to people of all abilities, including those with disabilities. People with disabilities cannot participate in politics due to several obstacles. Many people with disabilities opt out of politics because they feel their issues are ignored or believe they have little effect on policy and decision-making. To empower persons with disabilities, it is essential to encourage them to participate in the democratic process. With a lack of participation from the disability community, the views of those with disabilities will be ignored, and their rights to justice will be constrained. All citizens must participate in the political process to ensure that all citizens are content and happy with their respective governments, as depicted above.

Reference

McKee, R. (2022). Cagle Cartoons. Truthdig: Expert Reporting, Current News, Provocative Columnists. Retrieved 1 June 2022, from https://www.truthdig.com/cartoons/viral-tap/.

Zaslove, A., Geurkink, B., Jacobs, K., & Akkerman, A. (2021). Power to the people? Populism, democracy, and political participation: a citizen’s perspective. West European Politics44(4), 727-751.

Weiss, J. (2020). What is youth political participation? Literature review on youth political participation and political attitudes. Frontiers in Political Science2, 1.

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THE AMERICAN YAWP READER

A Documentary Companion to the

American Yawp

Volume II

[http://www.americanyawp.com/reader.html]

2

Table of Contents

Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

16. Capital and Labor …………………………………………………………………………………………. 9

William Graham Sumner on Social Darwinism (ca.1880s) ………………………………………10

Henry George, Progress and Poverty, Selections (1879)………………………………………………12

Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth (June 1889) ………………………………………………..14

Grover Cleveland’s Veto of the Texas Seed Bill (February 16, 1887) …………………………16

The “Omaha Platform” of the People’s Party (1892) …………………………………………….18

Dispatch from a Mississippi Colored Farmers’ Alliance (1889) ………………………………..23

The Tournament of Today – A Set-To Between Labor and Monopoly ……………………..27

Lawrence Textile Strike (1912) ………………………………………………………………………….28

17. The West ……………………………………………………………………………………………………29

Chief Joseph on Indian Affairs (1877, 1879) ………………………………………………………..30

William T. Hornady on the Extermination of the American Bison (1889) ………………….32

Chester A. Arthur on American Indian Policy (1881) …………………………………………….35

Frederick Jackson Turner, “Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893) ….37

Turning Hawk and American Horse on the Wounded Knee Massacre (1890/1891) …….39

Laura C. Kellogg on Indian Education (1913)………………………………………………………41

Helen Hunt Jackson on a Century of Dishonor (1881) ………………………………

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