Vertical Boundaries best essay help

Chapter 10: Vertical boundaries Chapter 10: Vertical boundaries Goal of the chapter To know the elements that affect the methods by which transactions on a vertical chain (worth chain) ought to be/are situated in the marketplace–organisation continuum. Studying aims On completion of this chapter and the important studying, you need to have an excellent understanding of the next phrases and ideas: • transaction value economics • strategic calculation. Important studying Buchanan, D. and A. Huczynski Organizational behaviour: an introductory textual content. (London: Prentice Corridor, 2008) Chapter 18. Douma, S. nd H. Schreuder Financial approaches to organisations. (London: Prentice Corridor, 2008). Additional studying Besanko, D. , D. Dranove and M. Shanley Economics of technique. (New York: Wiley, 1996). Coase, R. H. ‘The issue of social value’, Journal of Regulation and Economics three 1960, pp. 1–44. Grossman, S. and O. Hart ‘The prices and advantages of possession: a principle of vertical and lateral integration’, Journal of Political Financial system 94(four) 1986, pp. 691–719. Williamson, O. E. ‘The economics of group: the transaction value strategy’, American Journal of Sociology 87(three) 1981, pp. 548–77. 10. 1 Introduction As famous in Chapter 1, we could regard the fundamental unit in organisational evaluation as an trade or transaction generated within the division of labour. The division of labour (exogenous/endogenous – Chapter three) creates worth or vertical chains; for instance as proven in Determine 10. 1(a) working from crude oil extraction to the retailing of petroleum merchandise. We now function on the stage of organisations or companies (recognising that at a larger stage of disaggregation the factors within the chain are additionally primarily based on chains of the division of labour) and pose the query as to the place their boundaries ought to be situated on the worth chain. In truth the image is normally extra complicated than the one depicted in Determine 10. 1(a). Actions normally depend upon inputs in any respect factors down the vertical chain, as depicted in Determine 10. 1(b). So organisations or market exchanges may management and coordinate every of those transactions. Moreover, a few of these inputs could also be widespread to the factors on the primary chain (see Appendix 1. 2 on this information), like accounting companies, by which case the image appears to be like extra like Determine 10. 1(c). Word using di-graphs as soon as once more. 91 Organisation principle: an interdisciplinary strategy a) Oil extraction Refining Retailing • (b) Transport or pipe • • • Distribution • • • • (c) • • • Accounting • Determine 10. 1 • • • On the whole we’re asking the query as as to whether a selected transaction ought to be internalised (make) or left available in the market (purchase), as depicted in Determine 10. 2; that’s, whether or not a degree on the chain ought to be a division/ operate or division or stay impartial. For the second we limit our consideration to this easy alternative slightly than the extra elaborate positioning in the marketplace–organisation continuum.

We will return to the extra elaborate concern in a while. • • Market (Worth mechanism) Determine 10. 2 Begin by asking what the advantages and prices of utilizing the market is perhaps. The advantages may embody the next: • Unbiased companies could possibly reap the advantages of economies of scale (i. e. function at an output that minimises unit prices) whereas inner departments could not. Except the agency itself can take in all of the environment friendly output of the division, it should both function beneath the optimum output stage or promote on to a different agency. This would possibly compromise any data benefits of the buying agency (see beneath). • Unbiased companies are extra topic to market disciplines than departments and will maintain down prices they will management extra successfully. Prices could also be troublesome to establish in departments. Corporations would possibly, although, try to duplicate market incentives inside organisations. Tapered integration refers to a state of affairs the place a agency is provided partially by an impartial agency and partially by its personal division. This permits their relative value buildings to be in contrast. Unbiased companies (i. e. their managers) could have stronger incentives to innovate when put next with managers of departments. • • Organisation • 92 Chapter 10: Vertical boundaries The prices of utilizing the market would possibly embody the next: • Non-public data could also be leaked to impartial companies – notably if there’s a have to share technical data. • The focal agency turns into to a level dependent upon an impartial provider (relying upon switching prices). Thus the latter has an influence useful resource (see Chapter 6) and will use it to carry up the focal agency. It might show troublesome to regulate and co-ordinate flows of products and companies down a vertical chain of impartial companies. This can be notably so the place there’s a want to suit the merchandise intently. ‘Simply-intime’ strategies search to beat this drawback and allow impartial companies typically with long-term relational contracts (see beneath). The way in which most economists (following Coase and Williamson) take into consideration the selection between a market and organisational trade/transaction is completely predictable – select the association that minimises prices. The innovation right here is to ntroduce the concept of transaction prices – the prices concerned in making (controlling and co-ordinating) the transaction. They’re typically known as company prices, and company effectivity is discovered the place they’re minimised. So, if each manufacturing prices (which relate to technical effectivity) and transaction prices fluctuate between organisational transactions and market transactions, then the whole prices ought to be minimised. Exercise Now learn Sections eight. 1 and eight. 2 in D and S. If you want to learn a barely extra complete financial strategy to vertical integration, then learn Besanko et al. 1996). In a world of totally knowledgeable, rational actors the place contracting is full, there aren’t any transaction prices and the selection between market and organisational trade is of no consequence (a minimum of as conceived inside this framework) until manufacturing prices fluctuate (which, once more, they need to not underneath the identical assumptions). It’s as a result of we chill out each the assumptions of full rationality and full data within the context of ‘actual markets’ that transaction prices come up and the selection between market and organisational transaction is pertinent. Transaction prices principle is used each in a normative and optimistic sense. The brand new assumptions are as follows: • Particular person bounded rationality: individuals are deliberately rational however limitedly so. People are neither capable of make very complicated calculations nor to assimilate giant quantities of knowledge. As you would possibly anticipate, sociologists have a tendency to love this assumption; they see it as extra real looking than the total assumptions of rationality. • Opportunism: people usually are not solely self-interested however behave with guile. For instance, within the context of recreation principle, people will concern guarantees which aren’t credible, make use of uneven data they usually can’t be trusted. • Contracting about transactions is incomplete due to inherent uncertainty and incomplete data. • Contracting can thus result in ex ante opportunism (specifically, antagonistic choice) and ex publish opportunism (specifically, ethical hazard). • These hazards can be exacerbated to the diploma that there’s little alternative of transacting companions and due to this fact reputations (see Chapter 7) in respect of third events won’t constrain opportunism – small numbers trade. three Organisation principle: an interdisciplinary strategy • Anticipated repeated interplay will make reputations essential to each events but when within the course of there may be studying by doing, it’s then expensive to later swap trade companion. Williamson (1981) calls this the ‘elementary transformation’ – it ties the events into the connection. • Williamson additionally observes that events to a transaction may need a desire for a sure sort of transaction along with the prices and advantages. He calls this ‘ambiance’. In impact Williamson is introducing wider motives/utilities. Though the vocabulary launched by Williamson is slightly daunting at first sight, it has the benefit that it ought to hyperlink your ideas into most of the concepts you have got already encountered. Exercise Consider transactions as a prisoner’s dilemma or belief recreation. Each events wish to contract to realize Pareto effectivity however every is cautious of the opposite and within the absence of some mechanism to offset this wariness, the trade doesn’t materialise – the Nash equilibrium. So what mechanisms can be found? You must be capable of checklist the mechanisms. They are often derived as follows. Aggressive market – the worth as a enough statistic; right here the prisoner’s dilemma doesn’t mannequin the state of affairs. Organisation – three potential mechanisms which might produce the Pareto-efficient end result slightly than the Nash equilibrium are: 1. Authority and energy. 2. Belief (cultural mechanisms). three. Repeated transaction and status results. As we now have seen in earlier chapters, alongside monitoring and employment contracts (incentives), we anticipate organisations to avail themselves of a combination of those mechanisms. However be aware, if we predict by way of ‘actual markets’ slightly than the best sort of excellent markets, then the worth mechanism will not be enough and maybe these mechanisms may additionally apply at totally different positions in the marketplace–organisation continuum. We will return to those issues later. Transaction value economics embraces not solely an unorthodox mannequin of the person however characterises features (‘dimensions’, to make use of D and S’s terminology) of transactions that affect upon the transaction prices. Exercise Now learn Part eight. three in D and S. The argument is that asset specificity (typically referred to as ‘relation-specific belongings’), uncertainty/complexity and frequency of trade all enhance the probability transaction can be positioned (ruled) inside an organisation (that’s, make) slightly than left to the market (that’s, purchase). Asset specificity is available in totally different types: • web site specificity – adjoining websites, normally to economise on transport and communication prices • bodily asset specificity – e. g. pipeline delivering crude oil • devoted belongings – belongings of a selected purchaser devoted to a selected relationship • human asset specificity – expertise devoted to a selected relationship which might be much less useful elsewhere. 94 Chapter 10: Vertical boundaries So we now have a predictive principle about vertical integration and, by the way, contracting out. By and huge, empirical proof has supported transaction value principle – notably the affect of complexity within the context of uncertainty – although one ought to keep in mind what Williamson phrases ‘ambiance’. If there are widespread particular preferences – for example, managers would possibly choose the facility implied by organisation – this could complicate the image. Moreover, different elements would possibly affect the selection between market and organisation. Regulation and taxation can confer benefits in deciding the place earnings are generated. For example, taxation would possibly favour small companies, and companies working throughout totally different nationwide tax regimes could discover it a bonus to contract out. An organisation would possibly vertically combine to realize a monopoly or purchase data or to restrict the circulate of knowledge to rivals (see beneath). Given all these prospects, it’s maybe stunning that such sturdy empirical assist for transaction value principle is discovered. Appendix 10. 1 on this information provides a barely extra formal strategy to Williamson’s reasoning. The transaction prices strategy nonetheless leaves open two questions: 1. Will the combination, if acceptable, be backwards or forwards? 2. What sort of organisation – e. g. centralised or decentralised hierarchy? (I go away a solution to this query to Chapter 12. ) An extension of transaction prices principle referred to as property rights principle (which isn’t lined in D and S) offers a solution to the primary query. When a transaction is internalised inside an organisation, then possession ought to (be aware the normative phrase) go to the occasion with the best affect upon the post-contractual rents. Exercise Though this principle falls past this course, you would possibly prefer to learn Grossman and Hart (1986). Property rights principle is actually a principle of bargaining energy. Incomplete contracts imply that residual extra-contractual management of belongings is essential. Possession confers bargaining energy over operational choices when enforceable contracts break down. Anticipation of post-contractual hazards determines earlier funding choices. We now have to complicate the image by reintroducing the market–organisation continuum, as in Determine 10. three. I exploit the time period ‘continuum’ with a specific amount of licence as the choice positions on it fluctuate in plenty of respects and may very well be reordered. The continuum runs from excellent competitors, at one finish, to integration or organisation, on the different. The query now’s: the place ought to a transaction be positioned on the continuum? Earlier than answering this, allow us to take a look at what B and H need to say concerning the points we now have been discussing. 95 Organisation principle: an interdisciplinary strategy Spot markets (excellent competitors) Actual markets Bargaining Franchising Long run contracts (community organisations) Tapered organisations Digital organisations Alliances Three way partnership Monopoly (small numbers) Externalities Uneven data Mounted value (threat to provider) Threat sharing Price plus (threat to purchaser) Decentralised Integration (up/down) organisation Determine 10. Exercise Now learn Chapter 18 in B and H. Once more, this chapter in B and H is extraordinarily detailed; it’s worthwhile to grasp the primary concepts working down the left-hand margin. None of them is inconsistent with something you have got discovered from D and S; although be aware that the definition of vertical integration is in truth backwards vertical integration. Desk 16. three in B and H provides an excellent overview of what I’ve termed the organisation–market continuum. So allow us to now return to the continuum – see Determine 10. three – holding the wealthy descriptions in B and H’s chapter in thoughts. First, take a look at what I’ve termed ‘actual markets’. Right here we recognise that in the true world the market atmosphere is commonly removed from completely aggressive. If the transaction is left to the worth mechanism, then numerous market distortions could undermine the worth as a enough statistic. If, for example, a provider holds a monopoly, then backwards vertical integration could look engaging to a purchaser. Likewise, a purchaser is perhaps tempted to vertically combine backwards with the intention to purchase data or to reap advantages of vertical synergies (externalities). Lengthy-term contracts (which can inevitably be incomplete) allow organisations to interact in a protracted relationship. They typically happen between consumers and suppliers in a vertical chain. D and S launched the concept of ‘relational contracting’ (an equal time period). Bear in mind, everytime you suppose by way of contracts it’s worthwhile to consider the motivation, risksharing and knowledge features. Mounted-term contracts put the danger of, say, will increase in enter costs to the provider on the provider’s again. Price plus contracts reverse the state of affairs. Between these two extremes, risk-sharing contracts will be designed. If the client and provider have differing threat preferences then, different issues being equal, an optimum contract will be discovered. Community and digital organisations (see B and H) are normally primarily based upon long-term relational contracts, as are alliances. Joint ventures suggest fairness contribution from each the provider and purchaser. Centralised 96 Chapter 10: Vertical boundaries So the query now’s: the place ought to a selected exogenously generated (by the division of labour) transaction be positioned in the marketplace–organisation continuum? (The normative query. Alternatively, the place is it positioned and why? (The optimistic questions. ) Transaction value economics claims to be each normative and optimistic and solutions each questions – minimise transaction and manufacturing prices! However as we now have seen, that is solely a part of the story. Exercise Now learn Part 9. eight in D and S. In abstract, the selection of the place of any vertical transaction in the marketplace–organisation continuum could also be formed by: • economies of scale • anticipated data leakage • buying data • transaction prices • residual property rights • market imperfections • regulation. However how are these numerous strands to be woven collectively? Sadly there may be, so far as I’m conscious, no embracing principle. B and H introduce you to the idea of company technique and to what many organisation theorists time period strategic alternative. Though the concept organisational preparations designed to regulate and co-ordinate actions are a matter of alternative was first launched by sociologists in response to an earlier custom that spoke of ‘determinism’ – typically technological determinism – we will now see this as an unhelpful distinction. Economists will all the time communicate of alternative the place altering expertise would possibly both improve or limit the chance set which rational decision-takers face. We would then like to think about technological determinism when for no matter purpose, the chance includes a single possibility. I encourage you to suppose in these phrases even if you wish to query the restrictive notion of rationality (see Chapter 1). Exercise Now learn Chapter 9, notably Sections 9. 1–9. 7, in D and S. Sections 9. 1 to 9. 6 of D and S cowl problems with strategic planning that impinge upon organisation principle however are extra typically encountered in programs on administration principle. You’ll profit from studying them however they aren’t central to this unit. The central concept in administration principle issues the sources of what’s termed sustained aggressive benefit (SCA). Why do some companies/organisations handle to maintain a greater efficiency than their rivals, whereas working in the identical markets? Statistics are likely to recommend that this can be a widespread expertise in lots of markets. Corporations typically earn above-average returns (loosely rents) on their belongings over comparatively prolonged durations of time. The belief is that they’ve some traits (however which? that their rivals discover it troublesome to duplicate or enhance upon, a minimum of through the time by which the benefit is sustained. From an organisational principle viewpoint the query to ask is – are there methods of organising which might confer SCA? Discover that when an organisation possesses a aggressive benefit, for no matter purpose, then this means that excellent competitors will not be working. In as far as these working organisations search SCA, they’re making an attempt to undermine 97 Organisation principle: an interdisciplinary strategy aggressive forces. The early sections of D and S’s chapter present how recreation principle is an indispensable software in learning aggressive methods. 10. 2 Vertical contracting and strategic alternative Take into account a transaction between B and S, as in Determine 10. four. The issue is to design a contractual relationship to realize any potential rents. When it comes to aggressive benefit this quantities to inserting the transaction in the marketplace–organisation continuum extra successfully than the competitors. Assume that there’s want for relation-specific belongings and an entire contract can’t be signed due to inherent uncertainties. Suppose now that B wish to persuade S to make the relation-specific funding. S’s ex ante drawback is that within the absence of belief and credible guarantees, s/he anticipates that, as soon as the funding is made, B will reap the benefits of the state of affairs. S anticipates that B will all the time give you the option, as soon as the contract is entered into, to seek out contingencies not lined by the contract. By making the funding, S in impact confers bargaining energy upon B – who could even use this energy to renegotiate the unique contract (try to cut back the worth of the great or service exchanged). S will then anticipate these ethical hazards and accordingly not make investments; the transaction will fail and each S and B can be much less nicely off than they may very well be. Pondering by way of the (for the second, one-shot) prisoner’s dilemma, S and B discover a Nash equilibrium slightly than the Pareto-efficient end result. So what will be carried out to realize the Pareto superior end result? S Determine 10. four B Some prospects (neither unique nor exhaustive) are: • B makes the relation-specific funding (however then B confers bargaining energy to S) • B nd S make a joint funding – an alliance or three way partnership • S continues to make the funding however enters right into a long-term contract with B (be aware that relation-specific investments are likely to suggest long-term relationships within the first place) • ahead or backward integration (right here non-market incentives/ monitoring/authority/energy/tradition obtain the transfer from the Nash equilibrium to the Pareto end result). However allow us to proceed to imagine that B needs to discover a non-integration resolution and nonetheless to encourage S to make the expensive upfront relation-specific funding. S/he would possibly do that within the recognition that S, as an impartial organisation, could also be comparatively small, versatile and targeted. S, moreover, could also be pushed by a extra entrepreneurial spirit than if it have been to be a division or division in B’s ‘paperwork’. An impartial S could also be extra modern. Additionally small organisations are likely to have decrease labour prices (manufacturing prices). If that’s the case, then each S and B can profit. The strategic drawback is whether or not or not the transaction prices (ex ante and ex publish) will be stored down whereas reaping these potential benefits. To offset S’s anticipated ethical hazard issues, B must seek for methods of lowering her/his personal and rising S’s relative bargaining energy. To the diploma that this proves potential, the technique will offset S’s anticipated ethical hazards. B must make her/himself extra dependent upon S earlier than the contract is signed. One notable approach s/he can safe that is to decentralise some design and innovation obligations to S. B now turns into partially dependent 98 Chapter 10: Vertical boundaries upon S. Moreover, B can commit not solely to a long-term contract but additionally to comparatively unconditional contract renewal. These methods do in fact put B at some threat. However since we’re considering by way of incentives to transact, you need to by now recognise that risk-sharing is one other facet of the potential contracts between S and B that may be subjected to strategic reasoning. Not unreasonably, I believe, assume that S is risk-averse and B is risk-neutral. So S will settle for a discount in hire with the intention to scale back his/her threat and, comparatively talking, B can be ready to shoulder extra threat. So, a risksharing, long-term contract can conceivably result in a Pareto enchancment. Suppose by way of post-contractual value negotiation. With a fixed-cost contract any enhance in S’s prices should be borne by S. S can be reluctant to signal such a contract. With a cost-plus contract, however, B will bear all of the dangers of S’s value will increase. Moreover, S may have no incentives to carry prices down nor, maybe extra importantly, to innovate with the intention to scale back prices. Clearly, B needs S each to innovate and, the place potential, to carry down prices. It’s not in B’s pursuits to take the danger from S and undermine these incentives. How can s/he present acceptable incentives whereas lowering S’s dangers and in so doing make the contract attention-grabbing to S? What B must do is to just accept these dangers of value will increase which S can not management whereas making S answerable for these s/he can management – a tough enterprise. B must know the character of S’s value construction (an data drawback – no drawback with full data however with data asymmetry it’s one other story) earlier than s/he can obtain this. In fact, integration would possibly dispel this drawback however then we encounter the bureaucratic losses talked about above. What can B do? Return to your principal–agent mannequin (see Chapter four). We will regard B as a principal and S as an agent. P (B) can purchase data by having multiple agent (S) working in the identical atmosphere (in observe this isn’t simple). That is referred to as a number of sourcing. It may very well be achieved by both a number of exterior sourcing or having an in-house comparator (tapered sourcing). However, in fact, one must ask whether or not B’s sourcing necessities are of enough magnitude to reap any economies of scale throughout the a number of sources. If not, would it not be smart – from an data leakage viewpoint – to permit the sourcing organisation to promote to different organisations on the open market? If B has decentralised design to S then this would possibly show hazardous. As we now have noticed, long-term relationships (see Chapter eight) can invoke belief and status results. Historically it was assumed that one of many benefits of integration into an organisation derives from the repeated interplay results. B and S being in the identical organisation, they repeatedly work together and, certainly, they may assume that there’s a excessive sufficient chance that they may as soon as once more work together sooner or later. Thus prudent calculation can overcome the ethical hazards in incomplete contracting. In game-theoretic phrases B and S could play TFT (the people theorem). B can also want to shield her/his status for truthful play. In brief, an organisation can management and co-ordinate vertical relations by cultural means. Nevertheless, long-term contracts with a continuation clause additionally produce repeated interplay (the Japanese have been largely accountable, within the 1980s, for recognising this) and, thus, status and belief will be generated at different factors in the marketplace–organisation continuum. Cultural mechanisms can function outdoors formal organisations. If B and S can belief one another to not behave opportunistically, then some great benefits of S’s independence and diminished transaction prices will be realised. 99 Organisation principle: an interdisciplinary strategy Lastly, reverting to an prolonged worth chain the place S’s suppliers are additionally introduced into the image, we get hold of the state of affairs as in Determine 10. 5. • • R S B Worth and market > • > • • R S B Lengthy-term contracts > • > • • R S B Organisation p of co-ordination = three > • > • Determine 10. Ought to the entire chain be co-ordinated by integration (p of coordination) or maybe co-ordinated by long-term contracts, and so forth.? If the latter, ought to B contract with S and R or ought to B contract with S and S with R? In both case we now have examples of community organisation and even digital organisation if the relationships are mediated by trendy data expertise. The strategic complexion of those kinds of organisation is little understood. Why don’t you have got a go! I hope this part has given you some appreciation of methods to analyse organisation decisions from a genuinely strategic viewpoint. A lot of the above reasoning will be underpinned from a game-theoretic standpoint. This additional helps my earlier competition that trendy organisation principle typically requires a information of strategic considering and recreation principle. A reminder of your studying outcomes On completion of this chapter and the important studying, you need to have an excellent understanding of the next phrases and ideas: transaction value economics strategic calculation. Pattern examination query 1. Clarify why a transaction ought to be positioned in a market or an organisation. 100

HR Assignment

Capstone Project

· Section 3 · Financial management, quality and marketing aspects of the organization · Financial · Analysis of the service reimbursement for the organization (State, Federal, Insurance and Private Pay) · Methods of funding · Research issues · Quality and Ethics · Accreditation · Awards · Regulation · Ethical issues regarding who receives care at the organization · Marketing · Strategies · Branding · Community and employee involvement · Section 4 · Impact of economic and outside influences to the organization · National and world economy impact · Explanation of the sustainability of this organizational care model · Healthcare reform · Regulations · Section 5 · Conclusion for your paper and combine all the sections into a project paper · Recap the info regarding organization · Glimpse into the future for the organization based on your learning · Combine all parts into a APA formatted product[supanova_question]

Response #12 RP

I need to respond to the discussion below with at least 150 words about what is being discussed on their thoughts and topic. I need reference for any information used in response Global crimes transcend national borders and threaten American citizens and communities, businesses, and institutions, as well as global security and stability. The classification of global crimes can be categorized according to if the behavior is international and constitutes a crime against the world, or if the act is transnational that affects the interests of more than one state (Global Solutions, nod.). The contents of this essay will identify the various major global crimes and criminal issues that have a global impact on national and international justice systems and processes. In addition, the text will discuss the various international justice systems and how these global crimes and criminal issues are addressed. Fueled by open borders, global markets, and the advancement of telecommunications, international crime has become a rising universal problem. In 1995, President Clinton classified international crime as a danger to the national interest of the United States. Therefore, before and since then the federal government has been busy in a converging effort to address various major global crimes, such as human rights and war crimes, organized crime and narcotics, cybernetic, environmental crime, and terrorism (Global Solutions, nod.). Human Rights and War Crimes are inhuman acts committed by an extensive or systematic attack aimed against individuals, such as genocide, crimes against humanity, slavery, torture, aggression, and war crimes. Organized crime is a profitableness criminal organization or group who work together to commit illegal acts to achieve a common goal and most international organized crime involves narcotics violations including drug trafficking, drug manufacturing, and drug distribution are common trends in today’s international and national organized.[supanova_question]

Root Cause Using 5 Whys

Read the news report “Maryland Health Care Provider Sentenced to 10 Years in Federal Prison for Health Care Fraud Resulting in Patient Deaths.” Use the Five Whys to conduct a root cause analysis to determine why the Medicare fraud occurred and Timothy Emeigh’s participation in the case. Write a 525- to 700-word paper that identifies and evaluates the root cause for Medicare fraud in this case. Include the following: List each of the Five Whys and your response. Speculate as to why Mr. Emeigh participated in the scheme. Explain what you might have done to prevent this from happening. Cite 3 reputable references to support your assignment (e.g., trade or industry publications, government or agency websites, scholarly works, or other sources of similar quality). Format your assignment according to APA guidelines.[supanova_question]

Current Events Assignment

Click on “current events assignment #3” and either submit your response using the write submission box provided or attach your Word document: Read the article presented at the following website: What is your opinion regarding another country requesting an investigation into events that have taken place in the United States? Do these types of requests further discrimination or help to expose it? please do one page plus. There also needs to be a works cited page.[supanova_question]

Industrial Control Systems

Industrial Control Systems. This assignment requires you to analyze the network diagram for PureLand Wastewater and make specific recommendations to improve network security. Specifically, you must design zones and conduits as described in Chapter-9 of your text, establishing zones and conduits. Use the Network Security Improvement template for this assignment. The network security improvements you develop will be a part of your cyber security improvement plan. Your assignment will be graded according to the rubric which can be viewed when clicking on the assignment link.
Industrial Control Systems

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quesitions assignment on psych statistics of behavioral psychology WONT SHAKE HANDS WITH WHO IS UNPROFESSIONAL if you’re very familiar with the material it would be easy for you I HAVE THE BOOK ONLINE IF NEEDED DUE 8:15 AM CALIFORNIA TIME/USA if interested chat with me[supanova_question]

System Work Tuesday

System Work Tuesday. Parrot Palace works with TV and movie producers who need birds that can perform special tricks, such as playing dead, reciting poetry, ladder climbs, and various other tricks. Parrot Palace has about 50 birds and a list of 20 tricks from which to choose. Each bird can perform one or more tricks, and many tricks can be performed by more than one bird. When a bird learns a new trick, the trainer assigns a skill level. Some customers insist on using birds that score a 10, which is the highest skill level. As an IT consultant, you have been asked to suggest 3NF table designs. You are fairly certain that a M:N relationship exists between birds and tricks. Tasks 1. Draw an ERD for the Parrot Palace information system. 2. Indicate cardinality. 3. Identify all fields you plan to include in the birds and tricks tables. For example, in the bird table, you might want species, size, age, name, and so on. In the tricks table, you might want the trick name and description. You will need to assign a primary key in each table. Hint: Before you begin, review some database design samples in this chapter. You might spot a similar situation that requires an associative entity that you can use as a pattern. In addition, remember that numeric values work well in primary key fields. 4. Create 3NF table designs.
System Work Tuesday

Tanglewood Stores Casebook

Read Case #3 in the Tanglewood Stores Casebook. Answer the following questions: 1. Evaluate data related to Tanglewood’s historical recruiting methods to determine the effectiveness for each method. Use the case data in your responses. 2. Use the information obtained in the answer to #1 and provide recommendations for how Tanglewood should recruit employees in the future In your answers use the recruiting data from the case and appendix to support your recommendation. Successful answers will apply these data effectively. CASEBOOK ATTACHED, SCROLL DOWN TO PAGE 20, CASE 3[supanova_question]

Strategic Discipleship Guide Instructions

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HR Assignment

Employment Relationship and Discrimination” Please respond to the following: Contrast the primary differences between independent contractors, temporary employees and volunteers. Then, examine two (2) way2 in which each role differs from that of an employee. Justify your response. From the e-Activity, select two (2) employment discrimination laws, and then provide two (2) disparate treatment case using the same discrimination law. Review only the facts of the case, the legal issues relating to the disparate treatment, and the court’s decision. Next, outline the steps the employer could have taken initially to prevent the discrimination in question. Justify your response. E-Activity Go to the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s Website to review discrimination types, located at Be prepared to discuss.[supanova_question]

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