The Third Man (1950)
Soylent Green (1973)
The Empire Strikes Back (1980)
The Usual Suspects (1995)
Sixth Sense (1999) *** Professor’s Choice***
The Others (2001)
Look at the film that you viewed and try to use Aristotle’s terminology surrounding recognition scenes to try and discuss the plot of the film. Which kinds of recognition do you recognize in the film? Does Aristotle’s sense of the value of the scene work for you here? In terms of story, how does the recognition scene work? Discussion posts should do the following things:
1. Situate your Reading State some thing that you are drawn to or find compelling. Maybe it’s a quote, some specific words that are used (write out those quotes, [supanova_question]
Please read works 1, 2, 3, and 4 with each example on how to create
Please read works 1, 2, 3, and 4 with each example on how to create your own comment. You need to make a useful comment on your partner’s work.
Make your comment under each work, in blue color, please.
Use your own words and thoughts.
As Schugurensky (2000), points out education can come in two main forms – formal and informal. Formal education is hierarchical and highly institutionalized. It includes levels ranging from preschool to graduate school. At the end of each level, students typically get a form of certification stating that they’ve completed their level and are allowed to progress to the next one or enter the labor market. Basic formal education is often compulsory in many countries. Informal education, on the other hand, is voluntary. It happens outside the formal educational system, is based on people’s interests, and caters to all ages. Some examples of informal education are sports classes, foreign language classes, etc.
Unlike formal and informal education, informal learning is not based on any established curriculum. It happens independently and typically takes one of three forms (self-directed learning, incidental learning, and socialization). Schugurensky (2000) defined these forms in terms of intentionality and the learner’s awareness of a learning experience.
Self-directed learning is intentional in its nature, and the learner is always aware of the fact of learning something new. It doesn’t require an educator to be present, but a reference person might assist throughout the learning experience. I’d like to provide an example of my 8-year-old daughter learning to bake a cake. One day she just wanted to make a cake, so she searched for a kid-friendly recipe online, something that she could do entirely by herself. I was there to answer questions and just to ensure that the kitchen was not a complete mess after she was done. Well, she now knows how to make that chocolate cake, and she’s made it several times since then.
Incidental learning happens when a leaner doesn’t intend to learn anything, but a leaning experience happens nevertheless, and the learner recognizes it. To continue with my previous example of my daughter learning to bake a cake, she also learned that dry ingredients need to be mixed before she adds them to wet ingredients. She now uses this principle with any other kind of baking she does. She also learned a bit of fractions when she was trying to figure out what ¾ of a cup means. I think this kind of learning happens all the time in our lives when we encounter a new situation or trying to solve an unexpected problem. It’s particularly common among people who learn to live in a different culture and adjusting to a different way of life. I think I have a whole bag of stories here. For instance, I got locked out of my house because I couldn’t imagine that you could lock a door without using a key. Another example was when I was taking a shower and suddenly hot water ended because I just decided to take a really long shower. In Ukraine, we didn’t have water meters at that time, so we paid the same amount every month no matter how much water we used. Saving water was not something I leaned while growing up.
Socialization, or tacit learning, “refers to the internalization of values, attitudes, behaviors, skills, etc. that occur during everyday life” Schugurensky (2000). Even though learning through socialization happens unconsciously, it is possible that a person may acknowledge it later on in life “though a process of retrospective recognition” Schugurensky (2000). I’d like to provide a personal example here that illustrates this point. The first time I lived overseas was about 15 years ago when I was studying in Sweden. We were asked to make short introductory powerpoint and present it in class of about 40 people. Many students included some information about their families. One Pakistani guy showed us a picture of a man whom he introduced as his boyfriend. At those words, I literally froze in my seat. Never ever before had I seen a person who would publicly say that he was gay. I felt very uncomfortable. I looked around to see other people’s reactions. I think I was one of very few people in class (mostly of international students with a couple of Swedes) who were shocked. As my time in Sweden went by, years passed, and new life experiences happened, I realized that homophobia was embedded in the culture I grew up in. It took years for my attitude to change and for me to develop understanding and acceptance of different types of sexuality.
Olena, I like the way you shared your experience about your studies in Sweden. Our cultures and identities as well as geographical locations make us odd when we find ourselves in setting places. I believe that you did well differentiating formal and Informal sectors (learning). Just curious, do you have non-formal education in Sweden? or it is classified as formal education? I think Schugurensky does well in explaining each type of the three with multiple examples.
Formal education can be defined by the following criteria: 1) Highly institutionalized; 2) begins with what’s considered “basic” education with a state approved curriculum and includes certified instructors, and employs goals and assessments; 3) Is level based. Each level must be passed satisfactorily before the next may be started; 4) Has a defined hierarchy; and 5) credentials are issued at the end of each level completed (Schugurensky, 2000).
Non-formal education includes organized learning that occurs outside the formal education system. Most non-formal education is short (single classes on a topic, for example), and are entered into by choice of the learner, and not compulsory like much formal education. In most non-formal education, there is no strict level system, though some instances do offer certification and credentials upon completion. There are non-formal education opportunities for people of all ages in a large array of topics (Schugurensky, 2000).
Informal learning includes all learning that occurs outside of the formal and non-formal education spaces. Informal learning specifically does not use the term “education” to differentiate it from formal and non-formal institutions of education (Schugurensky, 2000).
Informal learning can be broken down into three different categories. Part of the categorization of these three types involve intentionality (whether the learning is intentional) and Awareness (whether the learner is aware at the time of the learning).
The first category of informal learning is “self-directed” learning. Self-directed learning is intentional, and the learner is aware of the learning at the time it occurs. Self-motivation is the driving factor in this type of informal learning and can include others as resources, but does not involve the use of formal educators (Schugurensky, 2000). I’ll use myself as an example in this type of learning. When I started working for my current company nine years ago, we were farming out most of our graphic design work. To save the company money and to have better control of our branding and design, I took it upon myself to learn Photoshop. I used several different resources to facilitate learning the software. I used a Photoshop instruction book, and many YouTube tutorials. I now do all the graphic and branding work for the company.
The second category of informal learning is “incidental.” Incidental learning happens when one does not intentionally enter into a situation for the purpose of learning, but after the experience is conscious that learning did take place (Schugurensky, 2000). Several years ago, my mother, a retired associate professor and 30 year public school teacher, was recruited to work in her local Senior Drug Court. Hired as an educational consultant, she was initially brought in as a resource to help recovering addicts with their court ordered writing and reflection assignments as a mechanism to facilitate their recovery. These essays were used in group sessions as discussion points for the participants. When she began leading these sessions, she had thought that she would be correcting grammar and syntax errors, and helping participants polish their writing and narrative skills. Since then, she has gained an entirely new outlook on addiction and has had many emotional moments with folks going through recovery. She has a greater appreciation of the struggles and trauma that they have experienced, and has a very different perspective on addiction from when the program started.
The third and final category of informal learning occurs by socialization. Schugurensky (2000) states that, “Socialization refers to the internalization of values, attitudes, behaviors, skills, etc. that occur during everyday life.” An example of socialization would include a personal friend of mine’s experience. My friend grew up in a very strict Catholic household. Her family, and the social circle they existed in, believed that divorce was wrong and was considered a very serious sin. Divorcees were not welcome at their church, nor were there any divorcees in their outside church social community. Later on in life, my friend did get a divorce and while very difficult, she realized that for some people, especially those in abusive relationships, divorce is the correct and only option. She realized that what she had learned through family socialization and her upbringing did not align with her life’s reality.
I really liked the examples of informal learning you provided. I’m particularly impressed with the work your mom had done helping drug addicts to recover. I think it’s an interesting approach of having people to put in writing and reflect upon their experiences. It must be quite theuraputic. I wonder (if you know, of course) whether this writing and reflecting process is effective in terms of returning people to drug-free life? Are there any testimonials that show that this kind of writing was helpful for the recovered addicts?
Schugurensky (2000) describes formal education as education that is hierarchical, regimented and linear. Formal education necessitates that a particular curriculum be followed due to its governmental oversight. Non-formal learning still utilizes a curriculum, but those who are enrolling in non-formal learning choose their courses without an educational mandate. Non-formal learning may not assume or require that learners have prior knowledge.
Schugurensky proposes three types of informal learning “self-directed learning, incidental learning and socialization” (2000, p. 20) to assist in defining how informal learning occupies the space outside both formal and non-formal education. Self-directed learning is the only one of the three that includes an intentionality on the part of the learner. Both incidental and socialization do not include intentionality, though learners are aware of their learning when the learning is incidental rather than socialized.
Self-directed learning is when an individual decides to acquire new knowledge, but without the aid of an educator. I decided that I wanted to make homemade gifts for my friends and family members. After trying and failing at knitting when I was younger, I decided that crochet looked easier! To teach myself, I purchased a few introductory books, but found that the images did not assist me in capturing the movement that I needed. I turned to YouTube instructional videos where folks post resource videos to clarify stitches. Through this process, I can now make scarves, but found a true passion for amigurumi crochet. Another example of self-directed learning was when I fixed a toilet that had been running. I conducted a Google search to determine what was causing the issue. I then narrowed down the possible causes by assessing the floater, etc. I then was able to purchase the needed items and install them, after watching a YouTube video.
Incidental learning is not intentional, but the learner is aware that they have acquired new knowledge. The first thing that comes to my mind are my conversations with my partner, who listens to a lot of podcasts. It is somewhat random, but he will see something that then sparks story telling regarding something he learned through his podcasts. For example, last night, we were eating mozzarella, cheese, and tomato. We had just watched a cooking show and I said something about how I wondered how people in different geographic locations decided what was edible or not because of a worm that was eaten on the show. This was a rhetorical question and I wasn’t intending to learn anything from my partner, nor did I know that he would have knowledge to offer regarding this question. He then told me about cheese, and how people realized that they could make cheese through carrying milk in the stomach of a deer. Honestly, this then turned into self-directed learning because I cannot stop myself from conducting a Google search on everything.
The third type of informal learning is socialization. In my work, I reflect on socialization’s role on gender expectations and performance. From a young age, I was taught how women were supposed to behave. For example, I had a babysitter who would not let me do certain things that my brother was allowed to do because I was a girl. I had a classmate in fifth grade tell me that I could not play baseball with the Texas Rangers because I was a girl. He would have had a fair point if he had just said I wasn’t good enough, but his criticism was rooted in my gender. I was told that I should wear makeup, or dress more femininely. When I did not behave in ways that were aligned with a societal expectation of how I should behave, I received criticism from others which reinforced that I was behaving incorrectly. There are rewards for behaving in ways that did align with societal expectations. For example, Etcoff, et al. (2011) found that women are viewed as more competent by others when wearing makeup. Granted, this study was paid for by Proctor [supanova_question]
In “Resistance to Civil Government,” Thoreau presents prison in a relatively positive light. Is this
Language and Culture Assignment Help In “Resistance to Civil Government,” Thoreau presents prison in a relatively positive light. Is this representation convincing? Why or why not? Why might he have chosen to emphasize the good qualities of prison? Why might Thoreau have wanted to take on this unaffected and naïve persona that comes through in his writing? (Use quotes from the text provided) PLEASE READ THE TEXT I ATTACHED[supanova_question]
You may already have developed a writing process that works for you, or you
You may already have developed a writing process that works for you, or you may want to develop a process while you write your assignments for this course.
Write a journal entry in which you
give two specific ideas/ approaches that you can take from this chapter to apply to your own writing process.
for each, discuss an area of your approach to writing that may need improvement, and indicate how this idea/ approach could help
Reflect on when and how you might adapt your process for various assignments or writing project
(For example, some students might never use an outline to plan, but others may rely on the outline step, and still others might find the outline helpful sometimes, or may want to add an outline step for this course.)
Be sure you have addressed the prompt, that you are specific, and that your entry says something worthwhile. Journal entries are informal writing, but as with all class writing, editing counts. Be sure to proofread your entry.
9 mins ago[supanova_question]