Question: Stakeholder Identification and Analysis A Case Scenario The Winding River Basin (WRB) has its origins high in the mountain peaks of Sumatra and flows through the rich agricultural plains of Dantu before reaching the sea at the Mangrove Delta. The Winding River is agriculturally and aquatically highly productive and a main contributor to the region’s foodStakeholder Identification and Analysis A Case Scenario The Winding River Basin (WRB) has its origins high in the mountain peaks of Sumatra and flows through the rich agricultural plains of Dantu before reaching the sea at the Mangrove Delta. The Winding River is agriculturally and aquatically highly productive and a main contributor to the region’s food security and export earnings. Approximately 300 kilometers offshore of Dantu, in the middle of the Fish Sea, is the small independent island nation of Loidong. In 2007, the Global Environment Facility approved a project to support the development of sustainable fisheries, aquaculture, and coastal livelihoods; to control and reduce sources of pollution that affect these development opportunities; and to strengthen governance frameworks necessary to achieve these goals. You are part of a group responsible for identifying and analyzing the stakeholders who should be involved in different aspects of project implementation. Environmental and Socio-Economic Overview The headwaters of the Winding River are high in the peaks of Sumatra’s central mountain range. Sumatra is a large, coastal country with a high rate of economic growth. In the semi-arid west, groundwater shortages have led farmers and cities to look increasingly to the WRB to supplement scarce supplies. This area is also home to a mix of four rural ethnic minorities that rely on small-scale agriculture and fisheries for livelihoods. These are among the poorest communities in Sumatra. Sufficient access to water for domestic and livelihoods purposes in these communities is a significant problem. The growth of urban centers along the river as it flows towards the border with Dantu has also led to high levels of water pollution from untreated sewage and industrial effluents. Along a main tributary that flows into the Winding River, Sumatra has a well-developed mining industry in the east with several refineries and processing factories. Effluents from these plants are regulated, but largely unenforced, and are impacting the health of the fisheries and water quality for domestic use in large portions of the WRB, as well as in the Mangrove Delta. Dantu is a country with widespread poverty but is rich in natural resources. The current economy of Dantu is based on rice farming, small-scale fisheries, and aquaculture. Farmers rely on the waters of Winding River for irrigation and the diverse fish resources depend on the annual flooding of the Winding River. Fish provides the main source of protein for these communities. Recent changes in the amount and timing of precipitation – thought to be linked to climate change – that is essential to the Winding River’s flood cycles has become a major cause of concern, as has pollution throughout the WRB. The WRB comes to the sea at the expansive Mangrove Delta. The fertile soil of the Delta is made of alluvial and marine deposits and is used widely for agriculture (mainly rice) and aquaculture. Commercial rice farms are increasingly using fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides that are compromising the water and habitat quality of large portions of the Delta ecosystem. Export of fish grown in these areas provides a large portion of Dantu’s economy and export earnings. The government of Dantu hopes to expand both rice and aquaculture production in the Delta, despite concerns that these practices are already impacting the ecological integrity and biodiversity of the ecosystem. In addition to the chemical applications, water quality is compromised from the industrial and municipal effluent of the capital city of B, located just northwest of the Delta. Environmental groups have noted a decrease in the numbers of migratory birds in the area, affecting the new but developing tourism industry in the Delta. Additionally, extreme weather events of recent years, particularly typhoons, are also causing concern for the sustained productivity of the Delta. Ethnically, Dantu is fairly homogenous, with only two small groups not forming part of the ethnic majority. These groups live in the northern portion of the Delta and are characterized by political marginalization and the highest poverty levels in the country. Offshore from the Mangrove Delta, in the middle of the Fish Sea, is the small island state Loidong. Loidong is ethnically homogenous. It is made up of two islands that integrate traditional land use and coastal management practices into their current governance system. The two islands are divided into villages, each governed by a chief, who is charged with the governance of all natural resources in the village. The Council of Chiefs is represented in the national parliament. The people of Loidong are fisherfolk, who supplement their diet with subsistence agriculture. In recent years, conflicts between local villages over fishing rights have become more pronounced as declines in catches are causing increasing competition. Fishing boats from the mainland often fish within Loidong’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), exacerbating the issue. Loidong does not currently have the capacity to enforce its territorial fishing rights. Tourism is also a growing industry on Loidong. The government is investing a great deal of money in tourism infrastructure development along the coast, including hotels and water sports and sport-fishing facilities. Pollution from land-based sources, as well as agriculture and siltation from deforestation in the upland areas of the islands, is causing concerns for public and marine health. Governance Overview All three countries have a national environment authority charged with oversight of coastal and marine issues. In addition, each country has a national water authority. Sumatra’s water and coastal resource management is highly centralized and the national authorities do not coordinate with each other or additional natural resource authorities at the national level. At the local level, Sumatra’s traditional leaders have an important role in settling water-related disputes. Civil society is fairly well-developed, but has a controversial history. NGOs must be registered with the government. Sumatra is, however, home to the headquarters of several international and national environmental NGOs working on environmental issues. Dantu has a more independent civil society, with several NGOs and community-based organizations working on related environmental topics throughout the country. The University of Dantu is involved in various types of coastal research. In addition to the national water and coastal/marine authorities, there are provincial-level institutions for water management that have a mandate to consult with local water user associations in certain regulatory matters. Fisheries are regulated independently by a separate Ministry that is in the process of establishing co-management institutions with fishing communities in the Delta. Dantu’s coastal zone management law was reformed in the late 1980s and is currently undergoing a review. Loidong’s laws were updated in the late 1980s. The Coastal Zone Management Act identifies conservation, sustainable use and development of its coastal resources, and equitable access as guiding principles. The management structure created by the Act is highly decentralized. Each village has its own traditional authority that is responsible for creating and implementing management plans, although frequently the villages lack the knowhow and other resources to fulfill these responsibilities. According to the statute, one of the essential roles of the local authorities is to promote community participation in national coastal zone planning, management, and decision-making. Various levels of resource user associations (particularly fishing associations) exist and are encouraged to become formal institutions. There are three main community development and issuebased organizations working throughout the islands. The two riparian countries of Sumatra and Dantu concluded a treaty on the management and sustainable development of the WRB in 1987. The treaty requires the two countries to notify and consult each other prior to undertaking developments that have a potential impact on the basin as a whole. However, neither country has implementing legislation or well-developed practice in implementing these requirements. There have been recent concerns in both Sumatra and Dantu regarding the impacts of the different sources of land-based pollution on the fisheries and other livelihoods in the Delta and along the coast. The Project In 2005, the three coastal countries applied for GEF support to identify and undertake priority actions for achieving integrated and sustainable coastal and marine management. They were granted the support in 2007. The overall goal of the project is to ensure sustainable development of the region through poverty reduction, ecological sustainability, and macro-economic development. To achieve these goals, the project includes the following components: (i) Improve sustainable fisheries, aquaculture, and coastal livelihoods; (ii) Reduce sources of pollution, particularly land-based sources of pollution, affecting these coastal and marine livelihoods; (iii) Strengthen governance systems at the regional, national, and local levels to achieve these goals, including: a. Developing and strengthening policy and legal frameworks for coastal and marine resource management; b. Building adaptive capacity of project countries to cope with the effects of climate change; and c. Enhancing capacity of institutions to implement and enforce the relevant policies, laws, and regulations. Today, you are part of the group of government representatives, project staff, and others that have been brought together to create a list of stakeholders for project implementation and identify the necessary next steps for completing a comprehensive stakeholder analysis.
question : Identify the various stakeholders in the project, including the competition. Stakeholders should be as specific as possible (someone or organization that you can go talk to). For example, having the “People of Dantu” as a stakeholder is vague. You should instead try to identify someone who clears represents the views and/or interests of the people of Dantu. Identify at least 30 stakeholders. Points will be awarded for as many valid and unique (non-repetitious) stakeholders that you can identify. (10 marks)
Stakeholders vary depending on a wide number of factors therefore within a construction project there are many different possible stakeholders. No matter what industry, it is important that the stakeholders of all projects are recognised in order to…View the full answer