Lectures:In at least 2-3 sentences, explain the significance of the slaughter of the Buffalo

Lectures:
In at least 2-3 sentences, explain the significance of the slaughter of the Buffalo on the plains, from the 1850s to the 1880s. .5 points
The Civil War in Indian Country (2 lectures):
What was Stand Watie’s rank in the Confederate Army? (2 words).  .5 points
How many people died in Indian Territory during the Civil War?  .5 points
What were Abraham Lincoln’s reasons for authorizing/permitting the execution of the “Dakota 38”?  What political calculations was he making and why? (minimum 50 words) 1 point.
What did the Treaty of Fort Laramie of 1868 establish? (3 words) .5 points
What were at least 2 factors which led to Custer’s defeat at Little Bighorn? .5 points
What was the goal of the United States for Native Peoples during the Era of Forced Acculturation (1870-1920)? 1-3 sentences.  .5 points
 
Readings:
In this week’s readings from Lakota Woman, “A Woman from He-Dog,” and “Invisible Fathers,” Mary Crow Dog writes in what might be considered as an overall tone of anger. Why? Why might Mary Crow Dog have had reason to be angry?  Would you find anger justified as a response to the things she describes in these readings?  Answer these questions and cite specific examples from the readings.  250 words minimum.  4.5 points
In the reading from Ojibwa Warrior, “At the Center of the Universe,” Dennis Banks wrote about his upbringing. In contrast to the readings from Lakota Woman, there is more of a tone of sadness than of anger in this reading.  Why?  Why might Dennis Banks have had reason to be sad?  Cite specific examples from this reading.  250 words minimum.  4.5 points
“All we wanted was peace and to be left alone.” ~Crazy Horse
Analyze and/or reflect upon the reported last words of Crazy Horse in this week’s primary document titled “I Have Spoken.”  Make a connection, if possible, with another quite different tribe we are reading about: How might Crazy Horse’s statement above (“to be left alone”) relate in any way to early Lumbee experience, as described by Malinda Maynor Lowery?  250 words minimum.  4.5 points
 
Lecture and Reading:
In at least 150 words, express your thoughts on and/or reaction to the Sand Creek Massacre and the accompanying article “My Great-Great Grandfather and an American Indian Tragedy.” How might you feel if, as the author Michael Allen, you discovered that your ancestor had participated in an event such as this?  2.5 points
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However, please use evidence from the textbook to support your response. There is no

However, please use evidence from the textbook to support your response. There is no word limit for this question; however, I encourage you to write roughly three paragraphs (12 sentences total).

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Introduction to Primary SourcesThroughout the semester you will have the opportunity to practice the

History Assignment Help Introduction to Primary Sources
Throughout the semester you will have the opportunity to practice the historian’s craft of primary source analysis. As you have learned from this topic, a primary source is evidence from the historical period you are studying that has survived to the present. Primary source analysis is a key functioned practiced by historians as they create narratives about the past. There is a particular methodology used when analyzing primary sources. When you analyze primary source you should strive to identify the following:
Source Type: the type of primary source: artifact, document, image you are analyzing
Source Date: when the primary source you are analyzing was was created/written 
Content: the  details the primary source you are analyzing records
Context: identifying why the primary source you are analyzing was created/written
Data Analysis: your discussion of content and context of the primary source after yo have analyzed it
Discussion: the implications your analysis of the content and context of the primary source has identified for the study of history
To help you organize your thoughts and prepare you to discuss this primary source I have provided below a Primary Source Analysis Form. This form reflects the methodology listed above and can be a tool to manage information for future use.  It can be filled out, printed, and filed in your course records. The primary sources you analyze in this course should be integrated into your essays and this form is a perfect way to synthesize details you can use in the future. To use the form, first download the form to your computer or portable drive. Next open the form from the downloaded location using a PDF Reader (https://get.adobe.com/reader/ (Links to an external site.)). Begin keyboarding into the form your analysis. Be sure to save your form regularly to avoid losing information. 
Primary Source Analysis Form (Links to an external site.)
Your first venture into primary source analysis in this course is by reading two selections from the Tlaxcalan Actas. As you read these selections try an see how many of the facets associated with primary source analysis listed above you can address. 
Discussion Board Introduction
James Brien in The Role of Causation in History exposes his readers to the role and function of causation in the study of history and views of causation that range from E.J. Tapp’s claim that without a “concept of causation there can be no history” and E.H. Carr’s perspective that the study of history itself is the “study of causes.” Brien concludes that causation “plays an integral role in historical explanation, though it raises many complex issues for the historian to consider when interpreting the past.” In part, these issues stem from the reality that the historian and the writer of a surviving source do not share a “common world, a common frame of reference, and a common understanding of language.” I would like to explore the concept of historical causation and the challenges historians face in source analysis by having you explore the content of two actas (proceedings)  from the cabildo (town council)  record of Tlaxcala. The Actas de Cabildo del Ayntamiento de Tlaxcala has been describe as “one of the rarest extant monuments of early Nahuatl writing and record keeping.” The reason being that the Tlaxcalans were Spanish allies during the conquest of the Empire of the Triple Alliance (Aztec Empire). As a result of their assistance, the Spanish allowed the Tlaxcalan cabildo a tremendous amount of latitude without any Spanish interference. For example, Spanish were not allowed to be part of the cabildo of Tlaxcala. The Tlaxcalans governed themselves. The minutes recorded by this cabildo date from 1547-1567 and provide fascinating details about its membership, assignments, and challenges faced by this municipal body. As you analyze the two selections below consider the following questions:
What challenges is the cabildo facing as it attempts to promote the raising of sheep? 
What farming practice can potentially cause famine in Tlaxcala?
What insights does this source provide historians about pre-Conquest and post-Conquest Tlaxcala?
Primary Source for Analysis: Actas 52 and 122
Acta 52. Cabildo Entry August 16, 1549: “Sheep The city’s sheep being unproductive and endangered because of the Tlaxcalans’ inexperience, the cabildo approves forming a company with a Spanish expert for the term of two years, during which he is to herd them and show how to increase breeding and wool and cheese production. The city is bear the costs, and entrusts the project to a committee (the corregidor, the governor, an alcalde, two regidores, and a cabildo notary), which is to report the results to the cabildo.”
 

“Indian that  gathers cochineal with a deer tail.”
Source: https://dcc.newberry.org/?p=14438 (Links to an external site.)
 
Acta 122. Cabildo Entry June 17, 1552: “Cultivation of cochineal (Links to an external site.) cactus [for red dyestuff] anywhere in Tlaxcala is to be forbidden since the commoners’ specializing in cochineal to the exclusion of food crops, and their consequent idleness, make disaster likely if famine should strike. The viceroy is likewise to be consulted.”
Discussion Board Analysis
In your first paragraph explain what a historian can learn from these two cabildo entries about the cause and effect the Spanish conquest of Mexico had on the territory of Tlaxcala.
In your second paragraph postulate why Tlaxcalan farmers are choosing to grow and harvest cochineal rather that food crops. 
After posting your introduction by the due date you will have 48 hours to reply to 2 classmates. 
 
*More about Cochineal (Optional viewing)
The following videos are for optional viewing in case some of you are interested in learning more about cochineal. They are meant to provide background information. However, keep in mind that the response in the discussion board must be generated by your analysis to the two selections from the Tlaxcalan Actas.

https://youtu.be/9YzM1Edb6mo

https://youtu.be/kyM97s9Rrrs

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Background:  With the concept of “Manifest Destiny,” Americans were interested in expanding westward to the

Background:  With the concept of “Manifest Destiny,” Americans were interested in expanding westward to the Pacific Ocean.  Traveling to the West was a long and arduous experience that railroads could shorten and simplify.  Railroad construction in the American West by necessity infringed on Native American territory and created unrest and uneasy relations between the Native American peoples and the railroad builders. 
Purpose:  In this discussion, you will explore and explain the argument either for OR against this expansion/infringement by using both the information from Chapter 17 and your analysis of the maps listed below.  You’ll present your argument to the class via a slide presentation format such as Google slides or Powerpoint (but make sure to save and submit as a PDF).  This assignment will build your research, analytical, and both visual presentation skills.
Tasks:
For this Discussion assignment you will use Chapter 17 in the Open Stax text and the following maps:
Railroads, 1870
Western Railroads, 1880
Western Railroads, 1930
Indian Cessions, 1750-1890
Indian Battles, 1846-1890
Indian Reservations, 1875
Adopt the position of EITHER a railroad magnate OR a Native American representative.  If you are the railroad magnate, explain why laying track through Native American territory in the American West is a good idea.  If you are the Native American representative, explain why railroad construction should not go through Native American territory in the American West.
Build a 3-5 slide presentation for your Discussion post that clearly states the case for your position.  You may write in character as a person from the 19th century, but this is not required.   See the Starting Your Presentation page and the Women’s Suffrage Sample Presentation for help in how to structure your presentation.
For purposes of this assignment, the American West is defined as all territory west of the Mississippi River. 
Click on the links/maps to go the Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States. There you will be able to increase the size of the maps and toggle between an atlas (flat) version and a georectified (rounded) version (both atlas and georectified versions are provided).  Take screenshots of the maps (or parts of maps) that are relevant to your argument and include them in your presentation to better illustrate your point. 
IMPORTANT:  make sure to save and upload your presentation as a PDF, so that everyone can see it.

Respond substantively to at least two of your classmates’ posts substantively.  At least of one your responses should be to a post of the opposite position from yours.
The following focus questions are intended to stimulate your thinking on the topic and help build your argument.  They do not need to be directly or specifically answered in your presentation:
What territory did Native Americans possess in the American West?
Was Native American territory necessarily in the path of railroads?
Where were Native American reservations in the West?
Where were railroads constructed in relation to Native American reservations?
Did railroad construction and Native American territory change over time?  If so, how?
Did railroad interests and Native American interests collide?  If so, when?
What conclusions do you draw about the reality of Native American territory and railroad construction?
Was railroad construction beneficial to Native Americans?
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