how Does A Nation Or State Become Aware Of A Problem That “essay Help” Site:edu

How does a nation or state become aware of a problem that governments need to address and how is the solution found prior to it becoming domestic policy?
On what system and principles are most American laws based upon- common law, precedent, stare decisis? What is the basic structure of the American judicial system today? Define judicial review, jurisdiction, writ of certiorari and amicus curiae briefs?
What is the bill of rights(civil liberties)? How does the fourteenth amendment (ratified in 1868) help protect individual rights? What is the incorporation theory and how has it affected the application of the bill of rights to the states?
What are the first amendment freedoms? What restrictions have been placed on first amendment freedoms? (clear and present danger, prior restraint, symbolic speech, commercial speech)
Why have racial/ethnic minorites had difficulty achieving social/poltical power, and what attempts have they made to enter the mainstream? Describe some of the barriers in term of reaching equality?