HIV and Epidemic Essay

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The purpose of this lab is to perform an ABO blood typing procedure using simulated blood samples in efforts to investigate and discuss the significance of ABO typing. Students will also investigate how the antigens and antibodies relate to and affect the results of the blood typing procedure.

The lecture recordings on Immunity and Virology will be helpful in understanding the concepts of antigens and antibodies. Students must understand what is meant by agglutination.

View the above YouTube clip on Virtual Blood Typing Lab:

When viewing this simulated blood tying lab, you will notice that directions are provided how to get into the computer link. You are not responsible for going into this computer link. Your responsibility is to view the video lab activity and answer the seven (7) questions at the end of this page.

Key Words

Agglutinins (antibodies): Antibodies found in the plasma of blood

Agglutinogens (antigens): Substances found on the surface of erythrocytes

Antisera: Serum that contains antibodies for one or more antigens

Blood transfusion: The transfer of whole blood from one individual to another

Erythrocytes: Red blood cells

Hemoglobin: A protein in the blood, primarily responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body and carbon dioxide from the tissues of the body to the lungs

Leukocytes: White blood cells

Plasma: Fluid of the blood where red blood cells are suspended

Process of agglutination: Clumping of red blood cells as a result of reaction to specific antibody

Rh factor: One of the proteins on RBCs used to indicate whether the blood of two different people is compatible when mixed; such as the blood of a mother and her baby at birth

There are 4 different kinds of human blood, determined by the presence or absence of specific agglutinogens (antigens) on the surface of red blood cells (erythrocytes).

These antigens have been designated as A and B. Antibodies against antigens A or B begin to build up in the blood plasma shortly after birth, the levels peak at about 8 to 10 years of age, and the antibodies remain, in declining months, through-out the rest of a person’s life.

Blood type O, characterized by the absence of A and B agglutinogens, is the most common in the United States and is found in 45% of the population. Type A is the next frequency, and is found in 39%. The frequencies at which types B and AB occur are 12% and 4% respectively.

As noted in the figure below, people can receive blood transfusions of only certain blood types, depending on the type of blood they have. If incompatible blood types are mixed, erythrocyte destruction, agglutination and other problems can occur.

For example, if a person with Type B blood is transfused with Type A blood, the recipient’s anti-A antibodies will attack the incoming Type A erythrocytes. The Type A erythrocytes will be agglutinated, and hemoglobin will be released into the plasma. In addition, incoming anti-B antibodies of the Type A blood may also attack the Type B erythrocytes of the recipient, with similar results. This problem may not be serious, unless a large amount of blood is transfused.

Blood Type

Antigens on Erythrocytes

Antibodies in Plasma

Can Give Blood To

Can Receive Blood From










O, B


A and B

Neither Anti-A nor Anti-B


O, A, B, AB


Neither A or B

Both Anti-A and Anti-B

O, A, B, AB


ABO system process of agglutination

Several drops of anti-serum are added to separate samples of blood.

If agglutination (clumping) occurs only in the suspension to which the anti-A serum was added, the blood type is A. If agglutination occurs only in the anti-B serum, the blood type is B. Agglutination in both serums indicates the blood type is AB. The absence of agglutination in any sample indicates the blood type is O

Agglutination Reaction of ABO Blood-Typing Sera



Blood Type

Anti-A serum

Anti-B serum


No agglutination


No agglutination






No agglutination

No agglutination


Answer the following eight (8) questions:

Using the above diagram and viewing the four types of blood samples in the video, determine the correct blood type for each of the four samples:
What is the correct blood type for Sample 1? ________________
What is the correct blood type for Sample 2? ________________
What is the correct blood type for Sample 3? ________________
What is the correct blood type for Sample 4? ________________

Which, if any, of the 4 blood samples tested can the patient with Type B blood receive? Explain why?

Explain how you were able to use your knowledge of how different types of blood react with Anti-A, Anti-B, and Anti-Rh antibodies to determine the blood type of the four samples?

If a person has Type A blood, he/she would have antibodies for what blood type?

If a person has Type O blood, what type(s) of blood would she/he not be able to receive?

What might happen if someone with Type A received a transfusion of Type B blood?

7. What is Rh factor and why is it important?

8. List two things that you learned from this laboratory exercise.[supanova_question]

I have a paper on Bacillus Cereus that I need proofed and put in order as it needs to

I have a paper on Bacillus Cereus that I need proofed and put in order as it needs to be per the rubric for the class. I will attach the rubric and what I have written so far. If you could add to it to improve it, that would be fantastic. Thank you!!!


Microorganism Profile

This project requires understanding and applying scientific knowledge that you acquire both inside and outside the microbiology classroom. You will construct a comprehensive profile of a microorganism assigned by the instructor. This microorganism is a pathogen that you may encounter in your nursing career. All written answers are expected to meet accepted grammar, syntax, and punctuation standards and follow APA format. Proper microbiology terminology is also likely. The completed APA paper will be submitted electronically via the Assignment Drop Box in Canvas. Total APA paper should be between 5 to 7 pages, including a title and reference page.

The Big Picture
As you progress through this course, you will acquire information sequential, topic-specific. Each topic will include information that is relevant to this assignment. For example, the knowledge you gain from the lesson on bacterial cell morphology will be applied to the first paragraph topic, Cell Morphology, and Growth Requirements. Your answers are expected to include information from sources beyond the textbook or classroom. Examples include peer-reviewed journal articles, daily interviews with clinicians who deal with microbes, personal experiences, and other reputable sources. You are expected to clearly understand the meaning of each topic before you construct your answer. For example, you are expected to know the importance of “epidemiology” and understand the topics connected to it. Don’t forget to read and understand the rubric before you start. Refer to it often – it will help guide you through the process.

Name of Microorganism: ________________________________________________________

1. Descriiption of the Microorganism (week 1)
Write a paragraph describing your organism. Please be sure to include the type of organism (bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoa, helminth, etc.), morphology (shape, arrangement, colony morphology if applicable), descriiption of structure (gram result, type of nucleic acid or virion structure, spore type, etc. if applicable) and also the type of microscope and stain you would use to view the organism. Please use proper scientific terminology and good grammar and sentence structure throughout this project.

2. Virulence Factors
Include a paragraph on the pathogen’s virulence factors and how they affect the host. Please enhance this with detailed explanations of the virulence factors and how they affect the host as you better understand them throughout the semester.

3. Immunity
Which innate and adaptive defenses protect us from infection by this bacterium?
Does this pathogen induce a specific type of immune response (example: delayed-type hypersensitivity)? If so, which one(s)?

4. Pathology (Infectious Disease Information)

What condition(s) or infectious disease(s) does it cause?
Which tissues or organs are affected, and how are they affected (for example, chronic TB is characterized by lung tubercles)?
Describe the complications that can result if the infection is left untreated.
Are these acute, chronic, or latent infections?
What organ system(s) does it infect?
Is it an opportunistic pathogen? If so, where is it usually found in the body?

5. Epidemiology
Draw and label a diagram of how this organism is transmitted. Ensure you include the reservoirs of infection, any vectors involved in the transmission, the type of transmission, and portals of entry and exit.

6. Prevention
Is there a childhood vaccine against this microbe? Name of vaccine
If so, when is it administered (the recommended schedule, including boosters, if recommended)?
If the vaccine is not recommended during childhood, which at-risk group should get the vaccine, and when?
Describe the type of vaccine and how it works :
If there is no vaccine available, list at least three measures that can be implemented to prevent people from acquiring this infection.

7. Treatment
Chemotherapeutic agents: antibiotic or antiviral etc., used to treat.
Mechanism of action for these chemotherapeutic agents.
Why is this agent efficacious against this particular organism?
Additional therapeutic agents or practices.

What measures are taken if there is no treatment specific for your organism?

8. Clinical relevance
Are there any MDR (multi-drug resistant) strains of this microorganism? If so, name the strain(s)
Is this strain a known healthcare-associated pathogen?

Which persons/procedures within a clinical or healthcare-assisted setting are particularly at risk

Which antibiotics are used against the multi-drug resistant strains? Be specific

9. References

Include at least 4 APA-style references (scientifically appropriate credible resources) that show where you found the information in this microorganism profile.[supanova_question]

Evolutionary Biologist Profile (This info can also be found in this file: ExtraCredit2022.pdf ExtraCredit2022.pdf – Alternative Formats ) Due

Biology Assignment Help Evolutionary Biologist Profile

(This info can also be found in this file: ExtraCredit2022.pdf ExtraCredit2022.pdf – Alternative Formats )
Due date: May 2, 11:59 PM. Submit via TurnItIn link under the Homework tab.
The purpose of this assignment is to give you insight into evolutionary biologists that are currently conducting research and how they wound up where they are. Because a lot of what you read in textbooks is about white men, this comes at the expense of underrepresented groups. The list that you will have to choose from consists of scientists who are women, trans, Hispanic/Latinx, disabled, LBGTQ , African American, Native American, gender non-conforming, or some combination of these.

Your assignment is to pick one of these scientists, learn about their academic history and research, and write a profile of them.

To pick your scientist:

Go to this google form:
Enter your information.
Look through the list of scientists. The list just shows names. All of these names are taken from the DiversifyEEB list ( You can start there to look for more information on some of the scientists, e.g. if you want to profile a scientist who is Latinx, you may find that information there. You can also go to the scientists’ webpages to learn about them. (Note that not everyone on DiversifyEEB is on our list.)
When you have decided who you want to profile, select their name in the google form. Once you pick a person, you are committed to that person, so do a little research first to make sure that you can learn enough about them.
After you fill out the form, the person that you pick will no longer be available for another student to choose, so it is up to you to do a good job for that person.

Research your scientist:

Find your scientist’s webpage to begin to learn about their academic history and current research.
Look for your scientist’s C.V., which is like a resume for academics. This will tell you where they completed their degrees and what academic positions they have held. It will also give you information about their research history and publications. Not everyone will have their C.V. online—that’s okay, just learn as much as you can from their website(s) about these things.
Find recent publications from your scientist. Go to Google Scholar and find the two most highly cited publications and the two most recent publications from your scientist. Read these papers.

Using this information and any other sources you wish to draw from, write a 1-2 page (<500 word) scientific biography of your scientist. One way to think about this is as an introduction that you might read if this person were coming to the UH Biology and Biochemistry Department to give a talk. In this introduction, you will want to convey:

Your scientist’s academic and scientific background. Where and when did they receive their Ph.D.? Did they do post-doctoral research? Did they have other positions prior to their current position? What is their current position and how long have they been there? (Include as much of this information as you are able to find.)
What are the general fields and main themes of your scientist’s research?
What research are they most known for? This is likely reflected by their most cited publications and their website’s research statement.
What recent work is happening in your scientist’s lab? Base this on the recent publications and the website.
Include a Bibliography where you cite the references for the papers from the scientist that you read, list their website(s) that you used, and cite any other sources that you used.

**Note that all of these must be written in your own words and not copied from their website or publications. (TurnItIn will be used to confirm this.) Write in terms that non-specialists would understand.

**This is an individual project–you may not work with a group.

I have already chosen a scientist. Jannice Friedman[supanova_question]

I need help with write introduction of my thesis only the introduction please my thesis talking about the association

I need help with write introduction of my thesis only the introduction
my thesis talking about the association between the rs1333040 SNP with lipid metabolism that might responsible for the development of CAD
so the introduction must contain ( CAD, CHOLESTROL, ADAM10 gene and CDKN2BAS1 gene)
The files in the attachments may help you to write the introduction, but it does not prevent you from searching for any other information

please use Mendeley (style IEEE)
THANK YOU[supanova_question]