Genetics in the News – Analysis part #2

This assignment is following up on the first part that I have completed awhile ago. I have attached all the required information in order to complete part #2.

This document must be organized as described in the instructions sheet. This should be a series of bullets in the same order shown in the instructions. Each bullet might contain several sentences or a paragraph, but the document should not be formatted as a paper.[supanova_question]

specific bacterial strains promote plant growth and resistance to abiotic stress (NaCl).

BIOL112 Research Proposal (completed with your partners)

Purpose of a proposal

Writing research proposals is critical in science as it is an essential step in getting funding for carrying out projects. As a student, you may need to write a research proposal when you apply for summer research programs (e.g. LMU’s SURP program). As a graduate student, you may need to write a proposal to get funding or to get your thesis plan approved. In all cases, the research proposal is meant to persuade someone, be it a funding agency, supervisor, or academic institution, that your ideas are worthwhile to pursue.

A research proposal has three main ingredients:

The Issue (What problem does the research address?)
Research Design (How will the research be done?)
Benefit (Why the research should be done?)

In order to achieve this, the research proposal will make you:

THINK through your experiments
Provide intellectual CONTEXT
JUSTIFY your research

You have now obtained rhizosphere bacteria and have characterized them for some of the properties suggestive of plant growth promotion. In the coming weeks you will begin testing two of these strains on plants. There are two plant assays you will be doing (protocols on Brighspace). One of them is a petri dish assay to assess germination percentage of the native plant Chamissoniopsis ca. The 2nd assay uses an agricultural plant and a hydroponic method to assess the impact of your strains on overall plant growth. In this assignment, you will choose ONE of these assays to focus on and write a short proposal related to it. You can use the procedures provided to get the information for how to set up the experiment and what the controls are. However, you have the flexibility to determine, given what you know about the properties of your strains thus far, what abiotic stress you would like to apply in the assay. Key parts of the proposal include:

Overall goal
Experimental strategy to address question, resolve hypothesis, and/or accomplish task (outline relevant lab procedures).
Discuss positive and negative controls as appropriate.
Prediction of results if experimental outcomes are consistent with proposed hypothesis/question.
At least two references relevant to your project.

Turn in a 1-2 page (double spaced) write-up of your proposal using the format described below. In it you will include the above items in paragraph form, giving background and justification for your project, and describing in detail how you plan to carry out the experiment (based on the protocols provided on Brightspace), making sure you specify exactly what stress treatment you will be using and the concentration applied.

Proposal parts

The proposal should have the following sections:
I. Title
II. Background and Specific Aims

This section should present a concise review of the primary literature relevant to your proposed research efforts. You should begin with the basics of your research topic and then narrow the focus of those details that are especially pertinent to the proposed work.

Specifically, include the following in this section:

A couple of sentences related to the importance of plant growth promoting bacteria, especially in relationship to the abiotic stress you are focusing on. Make sure to cite appropriately in the text.
A couple of sentences outlining what you have already accomplished, including what plant your isolates came from, the soil used in the trap plant experiment, and the interesting properties these bacteria have that suggest they may be plant growth promoting.
You should end this section with a statement of the Specific Aims of your research. You want to briefly state what the hypothesis is that you are testing or the question(s) that you seek to answer and how you will you do this (e.g. with seed germination assay or plant growth promotion assay).

III. Methods and Predicted Results

The Research Design and Methods section contains a descriiption of the procedures you will use to test your questions. Describe your experiments in sufficient detail so that they could be repeated exactly. What abiotic stress are you testing and how is it being applied (e.g. what concentration?) What control experiments will you carry out? How will you measure or quantify your results (e.g. counting number seeds germinated or weighing dry weights)? How many replicates are you doing? Be thorough, but not excessive.

Based on what you’ve seen in the primary literature, explain what you expect to see and hope to show through your results. What specific results do you expect to obtain in order to conclude that your hypothesis is supported or question answered? How would you interpret results other than those you expect? This section is critical to convincing your readers that you have designed an experimental protocol that will lead to a successful test of your hypothesis, generating clearly interpretable data from which you can draw strong conclusions.

IV. Discussion/Significance

In light of the results you expect to obtain from your planned experiment, what conclusions would you draw from these data? Discuss the significance of your expected findings to your field of study. In this section you relate the results of your work to the general body of knowledge you described and assessed in the Introduction. In other words, here you come full circle, relating what your work has revealed to the state of knowledge when you began your project.

V. References

You need to give in text citations and have a Reference list. You should have at least three references relevant to your project cited in the proposal. The in-text citations should be in the format (author last name et al., date) e.g. (Chen et al., 2002). If it is a single author, it would be (Chen, 2002).

If you have put all your references in Zotero, you should be able to export the Bibliography quite readily and put them in the Reference section.

General information about our experiment:, 36].-,Conclusion,concentration of Na under salinity.

We collected a lot of information from this specific paper (calculations and methods).

Our bacterial strains, isolate 5 and isolate 6, are from LAX dunes.

Our abiotic stress is NaCl (salinity).

Write a 750-1,000-word essay about water quality in your community that addresses the following points: 1. Obtain a water Essay

Biology Assignment Help Write a 750-1,000-word essay about water quality in your community that addresses the following points:

1. Obtain a water quality report from your local municipality within the last two years and discuss what you found in the report?
2. Identify a water quality issue happening in your community and where the pollution comes from? This includes point sources (for example, water discharge from a factory; contamination from a Superfund site), Non-point sources (for example, agricultural runoff), and Natural sources.
3. Describe how the pollution source is impacting the environment and human health in your community, and provide two examples of each.
4. Identify three management practices to minimize water pollution.
Remember to support your data and information with appropriate citations. A minimum of five peer-reviewed references must be included.[supanova_question]


For this ELISA laboratory assignment, view each of the three videos below and answer the questions found at the end of these instructions.

ELISA – a test used to determine if a person is positive or negative to a particular virus, bacteria or other pathogen

Detects the presence of an antibody that was formed from exposure to the virus
Performing an ELISA involves at least one antibody with specificity for a particular antigen
In this test, a patient’s serum is diluted greatly (400 times) and placed on a plate on which HIV antigens are already present
If the serum contains antibodies for HIV, they stick to these antigens
The plate is then washed to remove all other components of patient’s serum
Another specially prepared antibody is applied to the plate
A substrate for enzyme is applied and the color changes because of catalysis of enzyme

ELISA Procedure

ELISA test procedure (Links to an external site.)
ELISA test procedure

The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) (Links to an external site.)
The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

Sample Laboratory Procedure – This video may need to be unmuted before viewing. It the playback is too fast to effectively listen to the instructions, go into the video settings and change the playback speed to 0.75

ELISA Testing-SARS CoV2 (COVID19) (Links to an external site.)

The following questions are to be answered during the viewing of the three videos. Questions are not placed in order of appearance.

ELISA Online Laboratory Questions and Answers

What do the letters, ELISA, stand for?

What is the purpose of PBS buffer used in the ELISA procedure?

Why are enzymes used in this immunoassay?

If the person is positive to the disease, do the specific or non-specific antibodies attach to the antigen during the ELISA procedure?

What is the purpose of the transfer pipettes used in the ELISA procedure?

Why is it necessary to assay positive and negative control samples as well as the person’s own experimental samples?

What happens to the proteins in the plastic well if the sample contains the antigen?

Why is it necessary to wash the wells after each ELISA step?

What is the purpose of the substrate used in the ELIZA?

Why is the incubator used in the ELIZA?[supanova_question]