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Do not answer more than one question from a chapter.For each answer write a short essay between 300 to 500 wordsThe paper will be graded based on the following criteria: 1.    Quality of Answer: How well you answer the questions, how well you manage to incorporate all the component questions in your answer, how clear are your answers, etc.  2.    Engagement with the readings: Your answers should be based on close readings of the chapters.  Include reference (quotes, page numbers) to demonstrate your engagement with the texts. 3.    Quality of Writing: Grammar, Spelling, Sentence Construction, Absence of errors, etc. Question ListChapter 5 1.    What are the most important differences between a single-member district system and a proportional representation system? Which is more democratic? Which is more efficient?2.    Should democracies rely more on initiatives or referenda to decide policy, or are forms of indirect democracy better? Why or why not?3.    Describe the role of economic modernization and political elites in theorizing about the emergence of democracy. Why are overall levels of wealth not enough to predict whether a country will opt for democratic reforms?4.    Describe the benefits that political parties bring to a democracy. How might the structure of political parties differ between proportional representation systems and single-member district systems?5.    Is a presidential system more democratic than a parliamentary system? Why or why not?Chapter 61.    What is the link between civil society and populism in nondemocratic systems? Is the presence of a strong civil society always democratic?2.    What is the role of elites in fostering nondemocratic rule? Why might a resource-rich state be nondemocratic with low levels of public interest in democracy?3.    What is co-optation? How do nondemocratic regimes achieve political control through co-optation?4.    What are the five forms of nondemocratic rule and what is each one’s preferred method of control? In recent years, are nondemocratic regimes retreating or retrenching? Why?5.    How is totalitarianism different from other forms of nondemocratic rule? Why have some scholars suggested that the concept of totalitarianism be abandoned in comparative politics? Chapter 8 1.    What is the problem with using the first, second, and third world designations to classify the countries of the world? When applying the terms “developed democracies,” “communist and postcommunist countries,” and “developing countries,” what measures can be employed to determine which countries are “developed”?2.    Which is the better approach to dealing with immigration: multiculturalism or assimilation? Why? What are the benefits and drawbacks of each?3.    How should developed democracies address the problem of maintaining social expenditures as their populations grow older? Should benefits be reduced? Should immigration be increased?4.    What is devolution, and what are the benefits or dangers of such a policy? Provide at least one real-world example of devolution.5.    What is integration and what are the benefits or dangers of such a policy? Provide at least one real-world example of integration. Chapter 91.    Why was communism able to spread across such a large part of the globe? What explains its attraction?2.    What problems did the centralization of economic power in the state encounter that Marxist theory did not anticipate? Did communism create a more equal economic system?3.    How were religion, gender relations, sexuality, and nationalism handled under communist regimes? Were preexisting ethnic identities reduced or sharpened, and why?4.    How do we evaluate the economic transitions that postcommunist countries have undergone as either successful or unsuccessful? What are some of the factors correlated with a successful transition from communism?5.    Describe the political and economic strategies undertaken by Gorbachev as a means of reforming the Soviet Union. What changes did he propose in the international arena?Chapter 101.    How did import substitution compare with export-oriented industrialization as a real-world strategy for economic development and modernization? How did the Washington Consensus propose to address the problems of both of these economic development strategies?2.    Why have less-developed countries had such difficulty in building effective states? What particular roles do ethnic and national identities contribute to this difficulty?3.    What is microcredit? Describe the potential benefits and drawbacks of this strategy for economic development?4.    What is the role of civil society and political engagement in developing a more effective state?5.    Describe the motivating factors that began the process of European imperialism in the 1500s. Why were European states so proficient at expanding colonial structures in the less-developed world?

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